فرنك فرنسي

كان الفرنك الفرنسى العملة الرسمية لدولة فرنسا حتى عام 1999 وفي اليوم الأول من عام 1999 ولدت عملة اليورو رسمياً، واعتباراً من الرابع منه، فإن 80% من العملة المتداولة في الدول الداخلة في منطقة اليورو أصبحت العملة الموحدة: الدفع بين البنوك، وقروض الدولة، وكذلك أسعار الأسهم والادخارات باليورو، وقد بات ممكناً الدفع في عمليات الشراء بعملة اليورو بواسطة الشيكات. عام 2001 لم خرج الفرنك الفرنسي من التداول وتم استبداله باليورو نهائيا

فرنك فرنسي
franc français  (فرنسية)
50 ve 100 fransiz frangi.PNG 200 ve 500 fransiz frangi.PNG
50 and 100 francs200 and 500 francs
ISO 4217
الكودFRF (1960–2002)
الرقم250
الأس2
الفئات
الوحدات الفرعية
1100centime
الرمزF or Fr (briefly also NF during the 1960s; also unofficially FF and ₣)
الكنيةballes (1 F);[1][n 1] sacs (10 F); bâton, brique, patate, plaque (10,000 F)
الأوراق النقدية
 شائع الاستخدام20 F, 50 F, 100 F, 200 F, 500 F
العملات
 شائع الاستخدام5, 10, 20 centimes, 12 F, 1 F, 2 F, 5 F, 10 F
 نادر الاستخدام1 centime, 20 F
الديمغرافيا
المستخدم(ون)None; previously:
France, Monaco, Andorra (until 2002); Saar, Saarland (until 1959)
الإصدار
البنك المركزيBanque de France
 الموقع الإلكترونيbanque-france.fr
مصلحة صك العملةMonnaie de Paris
 الموقع الإلكترونيmonnaiedeparis.com
القيمة
Pegged byKMF, XAF & XOF, XPF, ADF, MCF
ERM
 منذ13 March 1979
 Fixed rate since31 December 1998
 Replaced by €, non cash1 January 1999
 Replaced by €, cash17 February 2002
=6.55957 F
This infobox shows the latest status before this currency was rendered obsolete.


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التاريخ

The French Franc traces its origins to the Carolingian monetary system of the 8th century AD, and more specifically to the Livre Tournois, an offshoot of the same system which emerged in the 13th century. Here is a table of changes to the value of the Livre Parisis & the Livre Tournois in terms of silver or gold until the French Franc was introduced in 1795.

Value of Livre Parisis (LP) & Livre Tournois (LT), grams
Year LP, g silver LP, g gold LT, g silver LT, g gold
781 407.92 - - -
c 1000 305.94 - - -
1266 - - 80.88 -
1317 80.88 - 64.70 -
1361 55.85 4.856 44.68 3.885
1425 38.243 3.585 30.594 2.868
1475 30.594 2.620 24.475 2.096
1549 20.396 1.747 16.317 1.398
1641 - - 8.309 0.6189
1726 - - 4.505 0.3116
1785 - - 4.444 0.2867
franc - - 4.500 0.2903


الكارولنجي، 781

 
Denier of Charlemagne c 800

Emperor Charlemagne's monetary system was introduced in 781 AD to the Frankish Carolingian Empire & spread over the centuries to much of Western Europe, with a Livre (Pound) of silver divided into 20 Sols or Sous (Shillings) and the Sol divided into 12 Deniers (Penny). Only the denier existed as a coin for the next 500 years, with the sou & livre functioning as accounting multiples of the denier. The first livre & denier weighed 407.92 g & 1.7 g, respectively, of the finest silver available.

الثورة الفرنسية

 
1795 five centimes, the first year of decimal fractions for the franc
 
An Assignat for 5 livres (1791)
1799 two-decimes essai coin
Three separate strikes of the proposed two-decimes coin (not adopted)

The decimal "franc" was established as the national currency by the National Convention of Revolutionary France in 1795 as a decimal unit (1 franc = 10 décimes = 100 centimes) of 4.5 g of fine silver. This was slightly less than the livre of 4.505 g, but the franc was set in 1796 at 1.0125 livres (1 livre, 3 deniers), reflecting in part the past minting of sub-standard coins. Silver coins now had their denomination clearly marked as "5 FRANCS" and it was made obligatory to quote prices in francs. This ended the ancien régime's practice of striking coins with no stated denomination, such as the Louis d'or, and periodically issuing royal edicts to manipulate their value in terms of money of account, i.e. the Livre tournois. The franc became the official currency of France in 1799.[2]


الامبراطورية الفرنسية والاسترجاع

1803 20 gold francs, depicting Napoleon as First Consul
1807 40 gold francs, now depicting Napoleon as Emperor

الاتحاد النقدي اللاتيني

France was a founding member of the Latin Monetary Union (LMU), a single currency employed primarily by the Romance-speaking and other Mediterranean states between 1865 and the First World War. The common currency was based on the franc germinal, with the name franc already being used in Switzerland and Belgium, whilst other countries minted local denominations, redeemable across the bloc with 1-to-1 parity, though with local names: e.g., the peseta. In 1873, the LMU went over to a purely gold standard of 1 franc = 0.290322581 grams of gold.

الحرب العالمية الأولى

 
The value of the old French franc, in 2007 euros. Years shaded in gold indicate fixing to the gold standard.

The outbreak of World War I caused France to leave the gold standard of the LMU. The war severely undermined the franc's strength: war expenditure, inflation and postwar reconstruction, financed partly by printing ever more money, reduced the franc's purchasing power by 70% between 1915 and 1920. After a brief appreciation of the franc during the Depression of 1920–1921, it depreciated a further 43% between 1922 and a balancing of the budget in 1926. This devaluation was aggravated by the insistence of the Republican U.S. federal government and World War Foreign Debts Commission that France's war debts be repaid within 25 years at a minimal 4.25 percent interest per year. The currency devaluation contributed to French demands for high reparations payments from Germany.[3] After a brief return to the gold standard between 1928 and 1936, the currency was allowed to resume its slide, until in 1959 it was worth less than 2.5% of its 1934 value.

الحرب العالمية الثانية

  During the Nazi occupation of France (1940–44), the franc was a satellite currency of the German Reichsmark. The exchange rate was 20 francs for 1 RM. The coins were changed, with the words Travail, famille, patrie (Work, Family, Fatherland) replacing the Republican triad Liberté, égalité, fraternité (Liberty, Equality, Fraternity), with the emblem of the Vichy regime added.

 
The value of the old French franc in the post-war period, in 2007 euros

After the Liberation, the US attempted to impose the use of the US occupation franc, which was averted by General De Gaulle.

فترة ما بعد الحرب

 
1958 10-franc coin

After World War II, France devalued its currency within the Bretton Woods system on several occasions. Beginning in 1945 at a rate of 480 francs to the British Pound (119.1 to the U.S. dollar), by 1949 the rate was 980 to the Pound (350 to the Dollar). This was reduced further in 1957 and 1958, reaching 1382.3 to the Pound (493.7 to the Dollar, equivalent to 1 franc = 1.8 mg pure gold).


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الفرنك الجديد

 
The value of the new French franc, in 2007 euros. Years shaded in light blue indicate fixed exchange rate to the euro.

In January 1960 the French franc was revalued, with 100 existing francs making one nouveau franc.[4] The abbreviation "NF" was used on the 1958 design banknotes until 1963. Old one- and two-franc coins continued to circulate as new centimes (no new centimes were minted for the first two years). The one-centime coin never circulated widely. Inflation continued to erode the franc's value: between 1950 and 1960, price levels increased 72 per cent (5.7% per year on average); between 1960 and 1970, it increased 51 per cent (4.2%).[5] Only one further major devaluation occurred (11% in August 1969) before the Bretton Woods system was replaced by free-floating exchange rates. When the Euro replaced the franc on 1 January 1999, the franc was worth less than an eighth of its original 1960 purchasing power.[بحاجة لمصدر]

After revaluation and the introduction of the new franc, many French people continued to use the term "old francs" (anciens francs) for large sums, for example for the prices of houses, apartments, and cars. This was common until the introduction of the euro and even later. Many people, old and young – even those who had never used the old franc – still quoted prices in old francs, confusing tourists and people abroad.[6][7][8] For example, lottery prizes were most often advertised in amounts of centimes, equivalent to the old franc, to inflate the perceived value of the prizes at stake. Multiples of 10NF were occasionally referred to as "mille francs" (thousand francs) or "mille balles" ("balle" being a slang word for franc) in contexts where it was clear that the speaker did not mean 1,000 new francs. The expression "heavy franc" (franc lourd) was also commonly used to designate the new franc.[بحاجة لمصدر]

All franc coins and banknotes ceased to be legal tender in January 2002, upon the official adoption of the Euro.[بحاجة لمصدر]

الاتحاد الاقتصادي والنقدي

From 1 January 1999, the value exchange rate of the French franc against the Euro was set at a fixed parity of €1 = 6.55957 F. Euro coins and notes replaced the franc entirely between 1 January and 17 February 2002.[بحاجة لمصدر]


النقود

قبل الحرب العالمية الأولى

French francs from the Consulship period
1803–04 one franc
1803–04 two francs
1803–04 five francs
1803–04 gold 20 francs
 
1889 proof gold 100 francs (only 100 struck)

In August 1795, the Monetary Law replaced the livre ("pound") with the franc, which was divided into 10 décimes ("tenths") and 100 centimes ("hundredths"). Copper coins were issued in the denominations of 1 centime, 5 centimes, 1 décime, and 2 décimes, designed by Augustin Dupré. After 1801, French copper coins became rare.[بحاجة لمصدر]


من الحرب العالمية الثانية إلى إصلاح العملة

 
Vichy French zinc and aluminium coins made during World War II. These coins circulated in both Vichy France and the zone occupée.

الفرنك الجديد

In 1960, the new franc (nouveau franc) was introduced,[9] worth 100 old francs. Stainless steel 1 and 5 centimes, aluminium-bronze 10, 20, and 50 centimes, nickel 1 franc and silver 5 francs were introduced. Silver 10-franc coins were introduced in 1965, followed by a new, smaller aluminium-bronze 5-centime and a smaller nickel 12-franc coin in 1966.[بحاجة لمصدر]

A first attempt to introduce a nickel 2-franc coin in 1960 failed.[بحاجة لمصدر]

Nickel-clad copper-nickel 5-franc and nickel-brass 10-franc coins replaced their silver counterparts in 1970 and 1974, respectively. Nickel 2 francs were finally introduced in 1979, followed by bimetallic 10 francs in 1988 and trimetallic 20 francs in 1992. The 20-franc coin was composed of two rings and a centre plug.[بحاجة لمصدر]

20 Centime with Marianne on Obverse.
 
Obverse: Marianne wearing the Phrygian cap of liberty Reverse: Face value and French motto: "Liberté, égalité, fraternité"
This coin was minted from 1962 to 2001.
 
French franc coins (1960–1999)
 
20-franc coin – trimetallic coin made for general circulation

All French franc coins were demonetized in 2005 and are no longer redeemable at the Banque de France.

At the time of the complete changeover to the euro on 1 January 2002, coins in circulation (some produced as recently as 2000) were:

Circulation Coins of the French franc (valid in 2001)
Image Value Equivalent in euros Diameter Weight Material Obverse Reverse Dates of issue
1 centime €0.0015 15  mm 1.65 g stainless steel sheath of wheat denomination 1960–2001
5 centimes €0.0075 17  mm 2.00 g aluminum-bronze Marianne and title of the country denomination; national motto (Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité); date 1966–2001
10 centimes €0.015 20  mm 3.00 g 1962–2001
20 centimes €0.030 23.5  mm 4.00 g 1962–2001
12 franc €0.076 19.5  mm 4.50 g nickel The Sower; country name denomination; olive branch; date; national motto (Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité) 1965–2001
1 franc €0.152 24 mm 6.00 g 1960–2001
2 francs €0.305 26.6 mm 7.50 g 1979–2001
5 francs €0.760 29.0 mm 10.0 g nickel-clad cupronickel 1970–2001
10 francs €1.52 22.3  mm 6.50 g aluminum-bronze (ring); nickel (core) "RF"; Le Génie de la Liberté value; abstract pattern; date; national motto (Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité) 1988–2001
20 francs €3.05 27.0  mm 9.00 g aluminum-bronze (outer ring and core); nickel (middle ring) Country name; Mont-Saint-Michel value; abstract pattern; date; national motto (Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité) 1992–2001
  • 1 centime (~ 0.15 euro cents) stainless steel, rarely circulated (last production stopped first in 1982, then in 1987 due to high production cost, and lack of demand due to its very low value).
  • 5 centimes (~ 0.76 cents) aluminium-bronze
  • 10 centimes (~ 1.52 cents) aluminium-bronze
  • 20 centimes (~ 3.05 cents) aluminium-bronze
  • 12 franc (~ 7.6 cents) nickel
  • 1 franc (~ 15.2 cents) nickel
  • 2 francs (~ 30.5 cents) nickel
  • 5 francs (~ 76 cents) nickel-clad copper-nickel
  • 10 francs (~ €1.52) bimetallic
  • 20 francs (~ €3.05) trimetallic, rarer (produced for a short period before the euro, the banknote equivalent was much more frequently used)
  • 100 francs (~ €15.24) silver, rarely circulated (most often bought and offered as personal gifts, but rare in commercial transactions, now worth more than its face value).


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الأوراق النقدية

 
République Française – 1000 francs (1795)
 
Banque de France – 100 francs (1927)
Banknotes of the French franc (1993–1997 issue)
Image Value Equivalent in euros Size Obverse Reverse Watermark Remark Date of issue
[10] 50 F €7.62 123 x 80 mm Antoine de Saint-Exupéry; Le Petit Prince (The Little Prince); "Latécoère 28" airplane "Breguet 14" biplane Antoine de Saint-Exupéry In the notes printed in 1992–1993, the name of Saint-Exupéry was misspelled as Éxupéry at upper left on front 20 October 1993
[11] 100 F €15.24 133 x 80 mm Paul Cézanne Fruit (a painting by Paul Cézanne) Paul Cézanne EURion constellation on the upper right corner of the note's reverse consisting of 100s spread across. 15 December 1997
[12] 200 F €30.49 143 x 80 mm Gustave Eiffel; truss of the Eiffel tower Base of the Eiffel tower Gustave Eiffel 29 October 1996
[13] 500 F €76.22 153 x 80 mm Marie Curie and Pierre Curie Laboratory utensils Marie Curie 22 March 1995

De facto currency

Along with the Spanish peseta, the French franc was also a de facto currency used in Andorra (which had no national currency with legal tender). It circulated alongside the Monegasque franc in Monaco, with which it had equal value. These currencies were all replaced by the euro in 2002.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Always used in the plural and originally in reference to the old franc, so that new francs were known as cent balles (100 old francs). Later, new francs and eventually euros came to be called " balles".

References

Citations

  1. ^ de Goncourt, E. & J. (1860), Charles Demailly, p. 107 .
  2. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Britannica
  3. ^ Steiner, Zara (2005). The lights that failed : European international history, 1919-1933. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-151881-2. OCLC 86068902.
  4. ^ "Ordonnance n°58-1341 du 27 décembre 1958 NOUVEAU FRANC". Legifrance/gouv/fr. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
  5. ^ Otmar Emminger: DM, Dollar, Währungskrisen – Erinnerungen eines ehemaligen Bundesbankpräsidenten, 1986, p. 75.
  6. ^ [P]eople continued to talk in old Francs for large values. They were still doing that in January 2002... In everyday conversation many people around here now [in 2003] operate three different systems depending on the value involved. For prices up to around €100 Euros are used. For higher values Francs are used - New Francs that is, except for values of 10,000 New Francs and more, which are still quoted in old Francs. The French Franc and its replacement by the Euro on www.midi-france.info
  7. ^ "But everyone gets confused above 10 million francs [100 000 new francs] and continues to use 'old francs'." (Mais au-delà de 10 MF, tout le monde s'y perd et continue de parler en «anciens francs».) [1]
  8. ^ "Almost 40 years later, a large part of the population continues to talk in old francs!" (Près de quarante ans après, une grande partie de la population continue à parler en anciens francs !) [2]
  9. ^ 1958 Monetary Law Reform voted along with the Fifth Republic Constitution.
  10. ^ "P-157". Banknote.ws. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
  11. ^ "P-158". Banknote.ws. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
  12. ^ "P-159". Banknote.ws. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
  13. ^ "P-160". Banknote.ws. Retrieved 5 October 2017.

Bibliography

External links

New franc
سبقه:
Old franc
سعر الصرف: 1 new franc = 100 old francs
عملة France
1960 – 2002
تبعه:
Euro
السبب: deployment of euro cash
النسبة: 1 euro = 6.55957 francs

قالب:Historical currencies of France

قالب:Euro topics

الكلمات الدالة: