البرلمان الفرنسي

(تم التحويل من برلمان فرنسا)

الپرلمان الفرنسي (بالفرنسية: Parlement français) هو المجلس التشريعي من مجلسين للجمهورية الفرنسية، ويتكون من مجلس الشيوخ (Sénat) و الجمعية الوطنية (Assemblée nationale). ويعقِد كل مجلس جلساته التشريعية في مكان منفصل في پاريس: قصر لوكسمبورگ لمجلس الشيوخ وقصر البوربون للجمعية الوطنية.

French Parliament

Parlement français
15th Legislature of the French Fifth Republic
Coat of arms or logo
النوع
النوع
Bicameral
المجالسSenate
National Assembly
الزعامة
جيرار لارشيه, LR
منذ 1 October 2014
ريشار فيران, REM
منذ 12 سبتمبر 2018
Emmanuel Macron, REM
منذ 14 May 2017
الهيكل
المقاعد925
348 Senators
577 Deputies
Sénat français après élections 2017.svg
المجموعات السياسية في Senate
  •      CRCE (15)
  •      SOC (78)
  •      RDSE (21)
  •      REM (21)
  •      LIRT (11)
  •      UC (50)
  •      LR (146)
  •      RASNAG (6)
Assemblée nationale 2018-11-29.svg
المجموعات السياسية في National Assembly
  •      GDR (16)
  •      FI (17)
  •      SOC (31)
  •      REM (312)
  •      MoDem (47)
  •      UAI (32)
  •      LR (102)
  •      NI (18)
  •      Vacant (2)
الانتخابات
Indirect election
National Assembly نظام التصويت
Two-round system
آخر انتخابات Senate
24 September 2017
آخر انتخابات National Assembly
11 and 18 June 2017
مكان الانعقاد
Garden facade of the Palace of Versailles, April 2011 (11).jpg
Aile du Midi, Château de Versailles
الموقع الإلكتروني
parlement.fr

كل مجلس له لوائح وقواعد إجرائية خاصة به. ومع ذلك فقد يجتمعون، من حين لآخر، كمجلس واحد، الكونگرس الفرنسي (Congrès du Parlement français)، الذي ينعقد في قصر ڤرساي، لتعديل وتنقيح دستور فرنسا.

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التنظيم والسلطات

 
قصر لوكسمبورگ

Parliament meets for a single, nine-month session each year. Under special circumstances the President can call an additional session. While parliamentary power has been diminished since the Fourth Republic, the National Assembly can still cause a government to fall if an absolute majority of the legislators votes a motion of no confidence. As a result, the government normally is from the same political party as the Assembly and must be supported by a majority there to prevent a vote of no-confidence.


التاريخ

The French Parliament, as a legislative body, should not be confused with the various parlements of the Ancien Régime in France, which were courts of justice and tribunals with certain political functions varying from province to province and as to whether the local law was written and Roman, or customary common law.

The word "Parliament", in the modern meaning of the term, appeared in France in the 19th century, at the time of the constitutional monarchy of 1830–1848. It is never mentioned in any constitutional text until the Constitution of the 4th Republic in 1948. Before that time reference was made to "les Chambres" or to each assembly, whatever its name, but never to a generic term as in Britain. Its form – unicameral, bicameral, or multicameral – and its functions have taken different forms throughout the different political regimes and according to the various French constitutions:

Date Constitution Upper chamber Lower chamber Other chamber Joint sitting Single chamber
1791 French Constitution of 1791 Assemblée Nationale
1793 French Constitution of 1793 Corps législatif
1795–1799 Constitution of the Year III Conseil des Anciens Conseil des Cinq-Cents
1799–1802 Constitution of the Year VIII Sénat conservateur Corps législatif Tribunat
1802–1804 Constitution of the Year X Sénat conservateur Corps législatif Tribunat
1804–1814 Constitution of the Year XII Sénat conservateur Corps législatif Tribunat[Note 1]
1814–1815 Charter of 1814 Chamber of Peers Chambre des députés des départements
1815 Additional Act to the Constitutions of the Empire Chamber of Peers Chamber of Representatives
1830–1848 Charter of 1830 Chamber of Peers Chamber of Deputies
1848–1852 French Constitution of 1848 Assemblée Nationale
1852–1870 French Constitution of 1852 Sénat Corps législatif
1871–1875 Assemblée Nationale
1875–1940 French Constitutional Laws of 1875 Sénat Chamber of Deputies Assemblée Nationale
1940–1944 French Constitutional Law of 1940
1944–1946 Provisional Government of the French Republic Assemblée Nationale
1946–1958 French Constitution of 1946 Conseil de la République Assemblée Nationale Parliament
since 1958 French Constitution of 1958 Sénat Assemblée Nationale Parlement réuni en Congrès

المصادر

This article is based on the article Parlement français from the French Wikipedia, retrieved on October 13, 2006.

قراءات إضافية

  • Frank R. Baumgartnerm, "Parliament's Capacity to Expand Political Controversy in France", Legislative Studies Quarterly, Vol. 12, No. 1 (Feb., 1987), pp. 33-54

انظر أيضا

ملاحظات

  1. ^ The Tribunate was abolished by a decree of the Senate in 1807, with its remaining functions and members absorbed into the Corps législatif.

الهامش

للاستزادة

  • Frank R. Baumgartner, "Parliament's Capacity to Expand Political Controversy in France", Legislative Studies Quarterly, Vol. 12, No. 1 (Feb. 1987), pp. 33–54. JSTOR: 440044
  • Marc Abélès, Un ethnologue à l'Assemblée. Paris: Odile Jacob, 2000. An anthropological study of the French National Assembly, of its personnel, lawmakers, codes of behaviors and rites.

وصلات خارجية

قالب:French Parliaments

الكلمات الدالة: