الأسرة المصرية الثامنة

(تم التحويل من أسرة مصرية ثامنة)

الأسرة الثامنة في مصر القديمة (Dynasty VIII) هي سلالة قصيرة العمر لا يُعرف الكثير عنها، حكم فراعنتها في تعاقب سريع في مطلع القرن 22 ق.م.، ولعل مقر سلطتهم كان في منف. The Eighth Dynasty held sway at a time referred to as the very end of the Old Kingdom or the beginning of the الفترة الانتقالية الأولى الفرعونية. The power of the pharaohs was waning while that of the provincial governors, known as nomarchs, was increasingly important, the Egyptian state having by then effectively turned into a feudal system. In spite of close relations between the Memphite kings and powerful nomarchs, notably in Coptos, the Eighth Dynasty was eventually overthrown by the nomarchs of Heracleopolis Magna, who founded the Ninth Dynasty. The Eighth Dynasty is sometimes combined with the preceding Seventh Dynasty, owing to the lack of archeological evidence for the latter which may be fictitious.

الأسرة المصرية الثامنة

ح. 2181 ق.م.–ح. 2160 ق.م.
العاصمةمنف
اللغات الشائعةاللغة المصرية
الدين الديانة المصرية القديمة
الحكومةملكية مطلقة
الحقبة التاريخيةالعصر البرونزي
• تأسست
ح. 2181 ق.م.
• انحلت
ح. 2160 ق.م.
سبقها
تلاها
الأسرة المصرية السادسة
الأسرة المصرية السابعة
الأسرة المصرية التاسعة
الأسرة المصرية العاشرة
تمثال من الأسرة 8، مت.

Egyptologists estimate that the Eighth Dynasty ruled Egypt for approximately 20–45 years and various dates have been proposed: 2190–2165 BC,[1] 2181–2160 BC,[2][3] 2191–2145 BC,[4] 2150–2118 BC.[5]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

الأحداث

لم تستطع الأسرة الثامنة التي برزت وسط التكالب على اعتلاء العرش بعد وفاة الملكة نيتوكريس Nitokris، في إحلال النظام بالبلاد خلال الفترة القصيرة التي أمسكت فيها بمقاليد السلطة (2140 - 2130 ق.م).[6]

حرص ملوك الأسرة الثامنة بقدر استطاعتهم على تقليد الأساليب التي كانت سائدة خلال الدولة القديمة، فقد عثرنا على هرم لأحدهم وهو الملك "إبي" في منطقة سقارة، كما اتخذ فراعنة هذه الأسرة من مدينة منف مقرا لهم، أما مدينة أبيدوس فقد ظلت المركز الإداري لمصر العليا. وكانت المراسيم التي أصدروها تتفق تماما مع الصيغ التقليدية المعتادة في ذلك الوقت. ورغم ذلك اضطروا إلى التحالف مع واحدة من أقوى الأسر القفطية، وهي أسرة الوزير "شماي Chemay" ، الذي كان حاكما على مصر العليا، ومشرفا على الأقاليم السبعة الأولى من الجنوب... وقد تزوج هذا الوزير من "نبت Nebet" ابنة الملك "نفر كاو حور"، واستطاع بذلك انتزاع عدة امتيازات جنائزية لنفسه ولأبنائه كذلك. فقد كلف أحد أبنائه وكان يدعى "إدي Idy" بمهمة الإشراف على مؤسسات العبادة، وهياكل معظم المعابد، والتي كان الفرعون يتكلفها بعنايته.


المصادر

 
ملوك الأسرة الثامنة في قائمة الملوك في أبيدوس، من نتجر كا رع سي پتاح إلى نفر كا مين.
 
ملوك الأسرة الثامنة في قائمة الملوك في أبيدوس، من ني كا رع حتى نفر إر كا رع.

التاريخية

مصادر المملكة الحديثة

Two historical sources dating to the New Kingdom list kings belonging to the Eighth Dynasty. The earliest of the two and main historical source on the Eighth Dynasty is the Abydos king list, written during the reign of Seti I. The kings listed on the entries 40 to 56 of the Abydos king list are placed between the end of the Sixth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom period and the beginning of the Eleventh Dynasty of the Middle Kingdom. Furthermore, the names of these kings are different from those known from the Ninth and Tenth Dynasties, none of which are on the Abydos list. As a consequence, entries 40 to 56 of the list are assigned to the Seventh and Eighth Dynasties.

The other New Kingdom source on the Eighth Dynasty is the Turin canon, written during the reign of Ramses II. The Turin papyrus was copied from an earlier source which, as the Egyptologist Kim Ryholt has shown, was itself riddled with lacunae and must have been in a poor state. In addition, the Turin papyrus is itself heavily damaged and cannot be read without much difficulty. In total three names are present on papyrus fragments which might be allocated to Eighth Dynasty kings. These are نتجر كا رع سي پتاح, another hard to read name and finally, that of Qakare Ibi, the fifty-third king on the Abydos king list. There seems to be room for two[7] or three[8][9] more kings before the end of the dynasty as recorded on the list. This would indicate that the missing parts of the Turin canon probably contained the kings in the fifty-first to fifty-fifth registers of the Abydos King List. Because the Turin papyrus omits the first nine kings on the Abydos list, W.C. Hayes thinks it reasonable that the Egyptians may have divided Dynasties VII and VIII at this point.[7]

مصدر پطلمي

The Egyptian priest Manetho wrote a history of Egypt during the 3rd century BC known as the Aegyptiaca. Manetho's work has not survived to this day and is only known to us via three later writers who quoted from it. Unfortunately, these three sources are exceedingly difficult to work with. For example, they often contradict each other, as is the case for the two ancient historians – Sextus Julius Africanus and Eusebius of Caesarea – who quote from the section of the Aegyptiaca regarding the Seventh and Eighth Dynasties. Africanus claims that the 7th Dynasty consisted of 70 kings that ruled during a period of seventy days in Memphis, and the 8th Dynasty consisted of 27 kings who reigned for 146 years. However, Eusebius records that during the 7th Dynasty five kings ruled over seventy five days, and the 8th Dynasty includes five kings who ruled for 100 years. Seventy kings in seventy days is usually considered the correct version of Manetho concerning the Seventh Dynasty, but likely not a factual account of history. Rather, this is interpreted to mean that the pharaohs of this period were extremely ephemeral, and the use of seventy may be a pun on the fact that this was Manetho's Seventh Dynasty.[10] Because Manetho does not provide actual historical data on this period and no archeological evidence for the Seventh Dynasty has emerged, many Egyptologists have argued that this dynasty is fictitious.[11] Concerning the Eighth Dynasty, it is now widely agreed that Manetho's estimate for its duration is a very substantial overestimation of the reality.[9]

الأدلة المعاصرة

The main archaeological evidence for kings of the Eighth Dynasty are royal decrees discovered in Coptos, which name some of the last pharaohs of the dynasty. Further tentative evidence for the early kings of the dynasty comes from tombs in Saqqara, in particular the pyramid of Qakare Ibi in Saqqara. Beyond that, there are royal inscriptions found in the Wadi Hammamat and in Upper Egypt, as well as non-royal ones from Upper Egypt as well.[9][12][13]

نهاية الدولة القديمة والانحدار إلى الفوضى

 
شظيتان من مراسيم قبطوس يعودان إلى عهد نفر كاو حور، في نهاية الأسرة الثامنة.

The Eighth Dynasty has traditionally been classified as the first dynasty of the First Intermediate Period owing to the ephemeral nature of its kings' reigns as well as the sparsity of contemporary evidence, hinting at a decline of the state into chaos. Recent re-appraisal of the archaeological evidence has shown a strong continuity between the Sixth and Eighth Dynasties, so that Egyptologist Hratch Papazian has proposed that the Eighth Dynasty rather than the Sixth should be seen as the last of the Old Kingdom period.[9]

Given that five Eighth Dynasty kings bore Pepi II's throne name Neferkare as part of their own names, they may have been descendants of 6th Dynasty, who were trying to hold on to some sort of power.[14] Some of the acts of the final four Dynasty VIII kings are recorded in their decrees to Shemay, a vizier during this period, although only Qakare Ibi can be connected to any monumental construction. His pyramid has been found at Saqqara near that of Pepi II and, like its predecessors, had the Pyramid Texts written on the walls.[14]

However many kings there actually were, it is clear that during this time period a breakdown of the central authority of Egypt was underway. The rulers of these dynasties were based in Memphis and seem to have relied on the power of the nomarchs of Coptos, on whom they bestowed titles and honours. This must have been to no avail as the Eighth Dynasty was eventually overthrown by a rival group based in Herakleopolis Magna.

ملوك الأسرة الثامنة

Given the lack of evidence for the Seventh Dynasty, all kings mentioned on the Abydos king list in the entries after that of Merenre Nemtyemsaf II and before that of Montuhotep II[4] are usually attributed to the Eighth Dynasty. Following Jürgen von Beckerath, they are :

الأسرة الثامنة حسب بكرات[4]
الاسم ملاحظات
من كا رع Possibly attested by a relief from the tomb of queen Neit.
نفر كا رع الثاني
نفر كا رع نبي Planned or started a pyramid "Neferkare Neby is Enduring of Life"، ربما في سقارة.
Djedkare Shemai
نفر كا رع خن دو
مرن حور
نفر كا مين
ني كا رع Possibly attested by a cylinder seal.[15]
Neferkare Tereru
نفر كا حور Attested by a cylinder seal.
نفر كا رع پـِپي سِن إب Turin Canon gives at least one year.[16]
نفر كا من آنو
قا كا رع إبي Turin Canon gives rule of two years, one month, one day.[17] Attested by his pyramid at Saqqara.
نفر كاو رع الثاني Turin Canon gives rule of 4 years and 2 months,[17] attested by a decree concerning the temple of Min.[18]
خوي‌وي‌هپو نفر كاو حور Turin Canon gives rule of 2 years, 1 month and 1 day,[17] attested by eight decrees concerning the temple of Min,[19][20][21] and an inscription in the tomb of vizier Shemay.[22]
نفر إر كارع Turin Canon gives a reign of 1 and a half years.[17] Maybe identical to either or both of Horus Demedjibtawy and Wadjkare. If so, he is attested by a decree concerning the temple of Min.

The Egyptologist Hracht Papazian believes that such a reconstruction gives too much weight to Manetho's account, according to which the Seventh Dynasty is essentially fictitious and a metaphor of chaos. Instead Papazian proposes that the earliest of the above kings are immediate successors of Pepi II and should be attributed to the Sixth Dynasty, while those just after them belong to a short-lived Seventh Dynasty. Then the Eighth Dynasty would only start with the well-attested Qakare-Ibi:

الأسرة الثامنة حسب پاپازيان[9]
الاسم
قا كا رع إيبي
نفر كاو رع
خوي‌وي‌هپو نفر كاو حور
اسم مفقود
نفر إر كارع

In addition, the identity and chronological position and extent of rule of the following rulers is highly uncertain: Wadjkare, Khuiqer, Khui و Iytjenu.


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

انظر أيضا

الأسر الفرعونية
بمصر القديمة
مصر قبل الأسرات
عصر نشأة الأسرات
عصر الأسر المبكرة
1 - 2
الدولة القديمة
3 - 4 - 5 - 6
الفترة الانتقالية الأولى
7 - 8 - 9 - 10 -
11 (طيبة فقط)
الدولة الوسطى
11 (كل مصر)
12 - 13 - 14
الفترة الانتقالية الثانية
15 - 16 - 17
الدولة الحديثة
18 - 19 - 20
الفترة الانتقالية الثالثة
21 - 22 - 23 - 24 - 25
العصر المتأخر
26 - 27 - 28
29 - 30 - 31
العصر الإغريقي والروماني
بطالمة - الإمبراطورية الرومانية

المصادر

  1. ^ Redford, Donald B., ed. (2001). "Egyptian King List". The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, Volume 2. Oxford University Press. pp. 626–628. ISBN 978-0-19-510234-5.
  2. ^ Shaw, Ian, ed. (2000). The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. p. 480. ISBN 0-19-815034-2.
  3. ^ Peter Clayton: Chronicle of the Pharaohs, Thames & Hudson Ltd, second printing edition 1994, ISBN 978-0500050743, available online, see p. 70
  4. ^ أ ب ت Jürgen von Beckerath: Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen, Münchner ägyptologische Studien, Heft 49, Mainz : Philip von Zabern, 1999, ISBN 3-8053-2591-6, see pp.66–71, and p. 284 for the datation of the 8th Dynasty.
  5. ^ Thomas Schneider in Erik Hornung, Rolf Krauss and David A. Warburton (editors): Ancient Egyptian Chronology, Handbook of Oriental Studies, Brill 2012, ISBN 978-90-04-11385-5, available online copyright-free, see p. 491
  6. ^ پاسكال ڤيرنوس (1999). موسوعة الفراعنة. دار الفكر. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  7. ^ أ ب Smith, W. Stevenson. The Old Kingdom in Egypt and the Beginning of the First Intermediate Period, in The Cambridge Ancient History, vol. I, part 2, ed. Edwards, I.E.S, et al. p.197. Cambridge University Press, New York, 1971
  8. ^ Ryholt, Kim (2000). "The Late Old Kingdom in the Turin King-list and the Identity of Nitocris". Zeitschrift für Ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde. see p. 88, fig. 1 and p. 91. 127 (1): 87–119. doi:10.1524/zaes.2000.127.1.87. ISSN 2196-713X. S2CID 159962784.CS1 maint: location (link)
  9. ^ أ ب ت ث ج Hratch Papazian (2015). "The State of Egypt in the Eighth Dynasty". In Peter Der Manuelian; Thomas Schneider (eds.). Towards a New History for the Egyptian Old Kingdom: Perspectives on the Pyramid Age. Harvard Egyptological Studies. BRILL. More than one of |encyclopedia= and |encyclopedia= specified (help)
  10. ^ Grimal, Nicolas. A History of Ancient Egypt. p.138. Librairie Arthéme Fayard, 1988.
  11. ^ Jürgen von Beckerath, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen. Münchner ägyptologische Studien (in German). 49. Mainz: Philip von Zabern. ISBN 978-3-8053-2591-2.
  12. ^ Couyat, J.; Montet, Pierre. Les inscriptions hiéroglyphiques et hiératiques du Ouâdi Hammâmât. Mémoires publiés par les membres de l'Institut français d'archéologie orientale du Caire. 34. Cairo: Institut français d'archéologie orientale du Caire. pp. 168–169, 188, 206–209 (see inscriptions). OCLC 920523964.
  13. ^ Kamal, Ahmed Bey (1912). "Fouilles à Dara et à Qoçéîr el-Amarna". Annales du Service des Antiquités de l'Égypte. p. 132.CS1 maint: location (link)
  14. ^ أ ب Grimal, Nicolas. A History of Ancient Egypt. p.140. Librairie Arthéme Fayard, 1988.
  15. ^ Peter Kaplony: Die Rollsiegel des Alten Reichs, vol. 2: Katalog der Rollsiegel, (= Monumenta Aegyptiaca. Vol. 3), La Fondation Égyptologique Reine Élisabeth, Brüssel 1981, issue 144.
  16. ^ Kim Ryholt: "The Late Old Kingdom in the Turin King-list and the Identity of Nitocris", Zeitschrift für ägyptische, 127 (2000), p. 91
  17. ^ أ ب ت ث Jürgen von Beckerath: "The Date of the End of the Old Kingdom of Egypt", Journal of Near Eastern Studies 21 (1962), p. 143
  18. ^ The decree on the catalog of the MET
  19. ^ Darrell D. Baker: The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I - Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC, Stacey International, ISBN 978-1-905299-37-9, 2008, p. 271-272
  20. ^ William C. Hayes: The Scepter of Egypt: A Background for the Study of the Egyptian Antiquities in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Vol. 1, From the Earliest Times to the End of the Middle Kingdom , MetPublications, 1978, pp.136-138, available online
  21. ^ The fragments of the decrees on the catalog of the MET: fragment 1, 2 and 3.
  22. ^ Nigel C. Strudwick, Ronald J. Leprohon ed.: Texts from the Pyramid Age, see pp.345-347, available online
سبقه
Sixth Dynasty
(Seventh)
Dynasty of Egypt
c. 2181 – 2160 BC
تبعه
Ninth Dynasty
الكلمات الدالة: