دنفرم‌لاين

(تم التحويل من Dunfermline)

دنفرم‌لاين (Dunfermline ؛ /dʌnˈfɜːrmln/; بالاسكتلندية: Dunfaurlin, بالغالية الاسكتلندية: Dùn Phàrlain) is a town and former Royal Burgh، and parish, in Fife، Scotland، on high ground 3 ميلs (5 kم) from the northern shore of the Firth of Forth. The town recorded a population of 50,380 in 2012, making it the most populous locality in Fife and the 11th most populous in Scotland.

Dunfermline
Scotland-2016-Aerial-Dunfermline Abbey.jpg
Aerial view of Dunfermline Abbey and historic quarter
Dunfermline is located in فايف
Dunfermline
Dunfermline
Location within Fife
Area7.07 ميل2 (18.3 kم2)
Population54٬050 [4] (est. 2018)
• Density1,498/ميل2 (578/كم2)
Est. 71,820
LanguageEnglish, Scots
OS grid referenceNT105875
• Edinburgh13 ميل (21 kم)
• London343 ميل (552 kم)
Council area
Lieutenancy area
CountryScotland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townDUNFERMLINE
Postcode districtKY11, KY12
Dialling code01383
PoliceScotland
FireScottish
AmbulanceScottish
EU ParliamentScotland
UK Parliament
Scottish Parliament
List of places
UK
Scotland
56°04′19″N 3°26′21″W / 56.07192°N 3.43930°W / 56.07192; -3.43930Coordinates: 56°04′19″N 3°26′21″W / 56.07192°N 3.43930°W / 56.07192; -3.43930

The earliest known settlements in the area around Dunfermline probably date as far back as the Neolithic period. The area was not regionally significant until at least the Bronze Age. The town was first recorded in the 11th century, with the marriage of Malcolm III، King of Scots, and Saint Margaret at the church in Dunfermline. As his Queen consort، Margaret established a new church dedicated to the Holy Trinity، which evolved into an Abbey under their son, David I in 1128. During the reign of Alexander I، the church – later to be known as Dunfermline Abbey – was firmly established as a prosperous royal mausoleum for the Scottish Crown. A total of eighteen royals, including seven Kings, were buried here from Queen Margaret in 1093 to Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany in 1420. Robert The Bruce، otherwise known as Robert I, became the last of the seven Scottish Kings to be buried in 1329. His bones would eventually be re-discovered and re-buried in 1821, when the excavation of the grounds of what had formerly been the eastern section of the Abbey became the site for the new Abbey Church.

The town is a major service centre for west Fife. Dunfermline retains much of its historic significance, as well as providing facilities for leisure. Employment is focused in the service sector, with the largest employer being Sky UK. Other large employers in the area include Amazon (on-line retailer), Best Western (hotels), CR Smith (windows manufacturing), FMC Technologies (offshore energy), Lloyds and Nationwide (both financial services).[5]


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التاريخ

 
Remains of Malcolm Canmore's Tower


الجغرافيا

Dunfermline is at 56°04′17″N 3°27′42″W / 56.07139°N 3.46167°W / 56.07139; -3.46167 on the coastal fringe of Fife.[6] The medieval town rose from approximately 51 مترs (167 قدم) above sea level in the south, where Nethertown Broad Street can now be found; 69 to 67 مترs (226 to 220 قدم) west to east along what is now Priory Lane; to 90 to 101 مترs (295 to 331 قدم) up the High Street, from west to east; to 92 to 105 مترs (302 to 344 قدم) between Bruce Street and Queen Anne Street from south to north.[7][8]

 
Panorama of Dunfermline seen from the town's Duloch neighbourhood in the east

Temperatures in Dunfermline, much like the rest of Scotland, are relatively moderate given its northern latitude. Fife is a peninsula, between the Firth of Tay to the north, Firth of Forth to the south and the North Sea to the east. Summers are relatively cool and the warming of the water over the summer, results in warm winters. Average annual temperatures in Dunfermline range from a maximum of 18 °م (64 °ف) to a minimum of 9 °م (48 °ف).[9]

The town is geologically separated from the area to the north by the Cleish Hills.

الاقتصاد

Dunfermline Industry Employed compared according to UK Census 2011[10][11]
مساحة دنفرم‌لاين فايف اسكتلندا
Area Committee[12] Total Population (2011) 54,712 366,910 5,327,700
All Persons 16–74 in Employment (2011) 26,919 167,326 2,516,895
% Primary Industry Employment (2011) 1.1% 2.4% 3.3%
% Manufacturing Employment (2011) 8.3% 10.0% 7.7%
% Utilities Employment (2011) 1.5% 1.4% 1.6%
% Construction Employment (2011) 6.9% 8.2% 8.0%
% Wholesale، Retail & Transport Employed (2011) 17.8% 18.6% 19.9%
% Accommodation and Food Employed (2011) 5.0% 5.6% 6.3%
% ICT Employed (2011) 4.8% 3.0% 2.7%
% Finance & Professional Employed (2011) 25.5% 19.1% 20.1%
% Public sector Employed (2011) 7.4% 7.8% 7.0%
% Education & Health Employed (2011) 21.5% 23.8% 23.4%

أشخاص بارزون

 
Display in the Andrew Carnegie Birthplace Museum

Dunfermline's most famous son is the entrepreneur and philanthropist، Andrew Carnegie who was born in the town in 1835. Among the gifts he gave to his home town, include a free library and public swimming baths. Most important of all, was the donation of the Pittencrieff Estate which he had purchased in 1903 to be converted into Pittencrieff Park. George Lauder، Andrew's "cousin-brother", a leading mechanical engineer, and his partner in the Carnegie Steel Company who would go on to be a board member of U.S. Steel. In 1888, two Dunfermline men, John Reid and Robert Lockhart, first demonstrated golf in the US by setting up a hole in an orchard, before Reid set up America's first golf club the same year, St. Andrews Golf Club in Yonkers, New York، with Andrew Carnegie one of the first members.[13]

A number of British monarchs were born in Dunfermline Palace. These include David II of Scotland (reign 1329–71), the son of Robert The Bruce in 1324;[14] James I of Scotland (reign 1406–37) in late 1394[15] and Charles I، King of Scotland، England and Ireland (reign 1625–49) in 1600.[16][17] James VI and I، the King of Scotland، England and Ireland and his wife, Anne of Denmark، the daughter of Frederick II of Denmark also lived at the Palace until the Union of the Crowns in 1603.[18]

The 15th century poet Robert Henryson، one of Scotland's most important literary figures during the period of the Northern Renaissance, was based in the town.[19]

General John Forbes who fought the French in the French and Indian War to capture Fort Duquesne and establishing the city of Pittsburgh، Pennsylvania، United States was brought up in his family's ancestral home of Pittencrieff House (now within Pittencrieff Park).[20][21]

Sir John Struthers who dissected and drew the Tay Whale، was an anatomist and professor of medicine. He was born and brought up in Brucefield House, now demolished, which gives its name to a district of Dunfermline.[22] The artist Sir Joseph Noel Paton was also born in the town.[23]

Ebenezer Henderson (1784–1858), a minister and missionary, was born at the Linn near Dunfermline. His nephew Ebenezer Henderson (1809–1879), a science writer and historian born in Dunfermline, wrote The Annals of Dunfermline.

In popular culture, the singer Barbara Dickson; actor Kenneth Cranham; Dan McCafferty and Pete Agnew from the Scottish rock band Nazareth; Ian Anderson، singer of the progressive rock band Jethro Tull and Moira Shearer، ballerina and actress[24] were all born in the town. Manny Charlton the producer of Nazareth emigrated to the town with his family in the 1960s and Stuart Adamson، rock guitarist with the Skids and frontman with Big Country، was brought up in nearby Crossgates[25] and moved into the town with his family as a teenager. Film director – and former Skids frontman – Richard Jobson, who grew up in nearby Ballingry، went to school in Dunfermline and during the early part of the Skids' career lived, for a time, in the Pitcorthie area. Big Country's co-founder Bruce Watson, though born in Timmins, Ontario, was also brought up in the town, a few streets away from Pete Agnew and Manny Charlton. Alan Darby, of Cado Belle، also grew up in the town and attended Dunfermline High School.

In literature, the critically acclaimed author, Iain Banks; poet and novelist, John Burnside and Robert Gilfillan all have links to the town.

In sport, Harry Lind of Dunfermline RFC who was capped sixteen times for the Scotland national rugby team and Jim Greenwood who played for Dunfermline RFC، Scotland and British and Irish Lions come from the town. Billy Liddell who played his entire career with Liverpool F.C. was born in nearby Townhill.[26]

المدن التوأم

 
Street Sign in the Rua de Dunfermline in the twin town of Albufeira، Portugal

Dunfermline is twinned with:

انظر أيضاً


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المراجع

الهامش

  1. ^ Mac an Tàilleir, Ian (2003). "Scottish Gaelic Placenames" (PDF). Scottish Parliament. p. 19. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 March 2007. Retrieved 13 April 2011.
  2. ^ Scots Language Centre: Scottish Place Names in Scots
  3. ^ Tours of Scotland, Nicknames of Scottish Towns and Cities Archived 10 January 2013 at Archive.is, retrieved on 19 August 2008. Toun is a word in Scots which can refer to any form of settlement from farm estate to burgh or city (see headword toun in Scots National Dictionary) and the reference occurs most famously in the ballad Sir Patrick Spens: The king sits in Dunfermline Toun,/ Drinking the blude-reid wine...
  4. ^ "UNITED KINGDOM: Council Areas and Major Cities in Scotland". Retrieved 12 August 2020.
  5. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Dunfermline Economy Presentation p.4
  6. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Dennison and Stronach3–4
  7. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Fawcett2
  8. ^ Dennison and Stronach, Historic Dunfermline, p.17.
  9. ^ "Climatology: Averages – Records for Dunfermline, United Kingdom". The Weather Channel UK & Ireland. Retrieved 20 August 2011.
  10. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Dunfermline Profile
  11. ^ "City of Dunfermline Area Committee - General Profile". knowfife.fife.gov.uk. 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
  12. ^ "City of Dunfermline Area Committee Map" (PDF). Fife Council. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 January 2015. Retrieved 5 January 2015.
  13. ^ "Ryder Cup: Painting celebrates Dunfermline links to American golf". BBC. Retrieved 30 December 2014
  14. ^ Ashley, British Kings and Queens, p.161.
  15. ^ Brown, James I, p.9.
  16. ^ Cavendish, Kings & Queens: The Concise Guide, p.322.
  17. ^ Ashley, British Kings and Queens, p.309.
  18. ^ "Dunfermline celebrates Queen Anne of Denmark". The Courier. 23 April 2010. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 26 February 2011.
  19. ^ "Robert Henryson - Homepage". www.arts.gla.ac.uk. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
  20. ^ Carnegie Dunfermline Trust, Dunfermline: Our Heritage, p.201.
  21. ^ "Living in the Past: Sir John Struthers (1823–1899)" (PDF). Dunfermline Heritage Community Projects. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 October 2015. Retrieved 29 September 2012. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  22. ^ "The Quarrel of Oberon and Titania (1849) | National Galleries Scotland". art.nationalgalleries.org. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
  23. ^ "Red Shoes ballerina Shearer dies". BBC News. 1 February 2006. Retrieved 17 February 2011.
  24. ^ "Rock Star Adamson dies in hotel". The Scotsman. Edinburgh. 17 December 2001. Retrieved 17 February 2011.
  25. ^ Glanville, Brian (5 July 2011). "Billy Liddell". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 17 February 2011.
  26. ^ أ ب ت ث "Town Twinning". www.fifedirect.org.uk. 29 July 2010. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  27. ^ Trondheims offisielle nettsted – Vennskapsbyer Archived 27 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  28. ^ "National Commission for Decentralised cooperation". Délégation pour l’Action Extérieure des Collectivités Territoriales (Ministère des Affaires étrangères) (in الفرنسية). Archived from the original on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 26 December 2013.

ببليوگرافيا

  • Brown, Michael (2000). James I (Stewart Dynasty in Scotland). Tuckwell Press Ltd. ISBN 978-1-86232-105-2.
  • Cavendish, Richard (2007). Kings & Queens: The Concise Guide. David & Charles. ISBN 978-0-7153-2376-2.
  • Dennison, Patricia; Stronach, Simon (2007). Historic Dunfermline: Archeology and Development. Dunfermline Burgh Survey, Community Project. ISBN 978-0-9557-2440-4.
  • Dunfermline Heritage Community Projects (DHCP) (2009). Your Guide to Dunfermline. Levenmouth Printers Ltd. ASIN B002RHBZBC.
  • Dunlop, Eileen (2005). Queen Margaret of Scotland. NSME. ISBN 978-1-901663-92-1.
  • Durie, Bruce (2010). Dunfermline: Britain in Old Photographs. The History Press. ISBN 978-0-7524-5573-0.
  • Fawcett, Richard (2005). Royal Dunfermline. Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. ISBN 978-0-9039-0334-9.
  • Fawcett, Richard (1996). Medieval Abbeys and Churches in Fife. Fife Regional Council. ISBN 978-1-872162-07-2.
  • Hendrie, William F. (2002). Old Dunfermline. Stenlake Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84033-194-3.
  • Lamont-Brown, Raymond (2002). Fife in History and Legend. Edinburgh: John Donald. ISBN 978-0-85976-567-1.
  • McEwan, Bert (2009). Dunfermline: The Post-War Years (2nd ed.). Breedon Books. ISBN 978-1-85983-407-7.
  • MacKay, James (1997). Little Boss: Life of Andrew Carnegie. Mainstream Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85158-832-9.
  • Omand, Donald (2000). The Fife Book. Edinburgh: Birlinn. ISBN 978-1-84158-274-0.
  • Pearson, John (2000). Around Dunfermline (2nd ed.). John Pearson. ISBN 978-1-90065-103-5.
  • Pride, Glen L. (1999). The Kingdom of Fife (2nd ed.). ISBN 978-1-873190-49-4.
  • Taylor, Simon; Márkus, Gilbert (2006). The Place-Names of Fife, Volume One. Donington: Shaun Tyas. ISBN 978-1-900289-77-1.

وصلات خارجية

قالب:Areas of Dunfermline