محافظة سيستان وبلوچستان

(تم التحويل من سيستان بلوچستان)

محافظة سیستان و بلوچستان هي إحدى محافظات إيران الثلاثين. وتقع المحافظة في جنوب شرب البلاد، يحدها پاكستان وأفغانستان وعاصمتها زاهدان.

Sistan and Baluchestan

استان سیستان و بلوچستان
Ghal'eh Sab, Saravan.
Ghal'eh Sab, Saravan.
Location of Sistan and Baluchestan within Iran
Sistan and Baluchestan Province and its counties
Map of Iran with Sistan and Baluchestan highlighted
Map of Iran with Sistan and Baluchestan highlighted
الإحداثيات: 29°29′33″N 60°52′01″E / 29.4924°N 60.8669°E / 29.4924; 60.8669Coordinates: 29°29′33″N 60°52′01″E / 29.4924°N 60.8669°E / 29.4924; 60.8669
Country إيران
CapitalZahedan
Counties19
المساحة
 • الإجمالي180٬726 كم² (69٬779 ميل²)
التعداد
 (2016)[1]
 • الإجمالي2٬775٬014
 • الكثافة15/km2 (40/sq mi)
منطقة التوقيتUTC+03:30 (IRST)
 • الصيف (التوقيت الصيفي)UTC+04:30 (IRST)
Main language(s)Baluchi
Persian (Sistani dialect)
HDI (2017)0.688[2]
medium · 31st

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الجغرافيا والثقافة

Sistan and Baluchistan Province Historical population
السنةتعداد±%
19961٬722٬579—    
20062٬405٬742+39.7%
20112٬534٬327+5.3%
20162٬775٬014+9.5%
amar.org.ir

Previously whole of this state was called Baluchestan , but Iran symbolically added Sistan to the end of Baluchestan and then after the 1979's revolution in Iran , the name of province was changed to Sistan & Baluchestan without any excuse. Today, Sistan refers to the narrow strip of the northern margin of the province and Baluchestan involves whole Zahedan to Chabahar. Combined Sistan and Baluchestan province today accounts for one of the driest regions of Iran with a slight increase in rainfall from east to west, and an obvious rise in humidity in the coastal regions. The province is subject to seasonal winds from different directions, the most important of which are the 120-day wind of Sistan known as baluchi word Levar, the seventh (Gav-kosh) wind, the Nambi or south wind, the Hooshak wind, the humid and seasonal winds of the Indian Ocean, the North or (Gurich) wind and the western (Gard) wind. The province borders South Khorasan Province in the north, Kerman Province and Hormozgan Province in the west, the Gulf of Oman in the south, and Afghanistan and Pakistan in east.

 
Naseri Castle, Iranshahr

Almost in whole of Sistān and Balūchestān, the people are mostly Balōch and speak the Baluchi language, although there also exists among them a small community of speakers of the Indo-Aryan language Jadgali.[3]:25 The name Balūchestān means "Land of the Balōch" and is used to represent the majority Baloch peoples inhabiting the province, Sistan was added to the name to represent the minority Persian peoples who speak the Sistani dialect of Persian.

Many scholars, orators, and literary personalities have sprung up from this part of Iran, amongst which are Farrukhi Sistani, Ya'qub bin Laith as-Saffar and Rostam. Ayatollah Sistani is also from Sistān; though he currently resides in Najaf, Iraq .


الدين

The Sistani people of "Sistan and Baluchestan province" are Shia Muslims, and the people of Baluchestan area are Sunni Muslims.[4]

التاريخ

 
Ghal'eh Sab, Saravan.

In the epigraphs of Bistoon and Persepolis, Sistan is mentioned as one of the eastern territories of Darius the Great. The name Sistan, as mentioned above, is derived from Saka (also sometimes Saga, or Sagastan), a Central Asian tribe that had taken control over this area in the year 128 BC. During the Arsacid Dynasty (248 BC to 224 AD), the province became the seat of Suren-Pahlav Clan. From the Sassanid period till the early Islamic period, Sistan flourished considerably.

During the reign of Ardashir I of Persia, Sistan came under the jurisdiction of the Sassanids, and in 644 AD, the Arab Muslims gained control as the Persian empire was in its final moments of collapsing.

During the reign of the second Sunni caliph, Omar ibn Al-Khattab, this territory was conquered by the Arabs and an Arab commander was assigned as governor. The famous Persian ruler Ya'qub-i Laith Saffari, whose descendants dominated this area for many centuries, later became governor of this province. In 916 AD, Baluchestan was ruled by the Daylamids and thereafter the Seljuqids, when it became a part of Kerman. Dynasties such as the Saffarids, Samanids, Qaznavids, and Seljuqids, also ruled over this territory.

In 1508 AD, Shah Ismail I of the Safavid dynasty conquered Sistan, and during the reign of Nader Shah, there was further turmoil.

هجوم 2021

في 24 يوليو 2021، قتل 4 أفراد من الحرس الثوري الإيراني باشتباكات في محافظة سيستان وبلوچستان بجنوب شرقي إيران. وأعلن الحرس الثوري الإيراني عن مقتل عناصره الأربعة، مشيراً إلى أنهم قتلوا باشتباك مع من وصفهم بـ"الأشرار" في منطقة جونيك خاش، على بعد 185 كيلومتراً إلى الجنوب من زاهدان، مركز محافظة سيستان وبلوچستان.[5]

غير أن الحرس الثوري الإيراني لم يكشف عن التفاصيل، وقال إن "تفاصيل هذا الحادث ستعلن في وقت لاحق"، بحسب ما ذكرت وكالة الأنباء الإيرانية "إرنا". وكان ضابط في قوات الأمن الإيرانية قتل في جنوب غربي إيران في وقت سابق. وأعلن المسؤول في إدارة ميناء ماهشهر، بمحافظة خوزستان، فريدون بندري عن مقتل ضابط وإصابة آخر من أفراد وحدة الإغاثة التابعة لقوى الأمن الداخلي في الميناء، مضيفاً أنه قتل "على يد مثيري الشغب". وأوضح بندري أن كوادر وحدة الإغاثة بوغتوا أثناء أداء الواجب و"تعرضوا إلى إطلاق نار من قبل مثيري الشغب من فوق سطح أحد المباني".

المدن

The following table shows the ten largest cities of Sistan and Baluchestan Province:[6]

Rank Name Population (2016)
1 Zahedan 587,730
2 Zabol 134,950
3 Iranshahr 113,750
4 Chabahar 106,739
5 Saravan 60,014
6 Khash 56,584
7 Konarak 43,258
8 Jaleq 18,098
9 Nik Shahr 17,732
10 Pishin 16,011

سيستان وبلوچستان اليوم

 
الشواطئ الجنوبي الشرقية للمحافظة على خليج عمان.

الكليات والجامعات

  1. جامعة سيستان وبلوچستان
  2. جامعة زابول
  3. جامعة أزاد الإسلامية في إيران شهر
  4. جامعة أزاد الإسلامية في زاهدان
  5. جامعة زاهدان للعلوم الطبية
  6. جامعة زابول للعلوم الطبية
  7. جامعة شباشهر الدولية

النقل

النقل البري

شبكة السكك الحديدية الوطنية

The city of Zahedan has been connected to Quetta in Pakistan for a century with a broad gauge railway. It has weekly trains for Kovaitah. Recently a railway from Bam, Iran to Zahedan has been inaugurated. There may be plans to build railway lines from Zahedan to Chabahar.[7]

المطارات

Sistan va Baluchistan Province has two main passenger airports:

الموانئ

Port of Chabahar in south of province is the main port to be connected by a new railway to Zahedan in future. India is investing on this port. The port stands on Coast of Makran and is 70 km in west of Gwadar, Pakistan.[8]

الصناعة والتعدين

 
Chabahar

Industry is new to the province. Efforts have been done and tax, customs and financial motivations have caused more industrial investment, new projects, new producing jobs and improvement of industry.

The most important factories are: – Khash cement factory with production of 2600 tons cement daily and three other cement.

Factories under construction: – Cotton cloth and fishing net weaving factories and the brick factory can be named as well.

The province has important geological and metal mineral potentials such as chrome, copper, granite, antimony, talc, manganese, iron, lead, zinc, tin, nickel, platinum, gold and silver.

One of the main mines in this province is Chel Kooreh copper mine in 120 km north of Zahedan.


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انظر أيضا

الهامش

  1. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 March 2017. Retrieved 19 March 2017. Unknown parameter |dead-url= ignored (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org (in الإنجليزية). Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  3. ^ Delforooz, Behrooz Barjasteh (2008). "A sociolinguistic survey of among the Jagdal in Iranian Balochistan". In Jahani, Carina; Korn, Agnes; Titus, Paul Brian (eds.). The Baloch and others: linguistic, historical and socio-political perspectives on pluralism in Balochistan. Wiesbaden: Reichert Verlag. pp. 23–44. ISBN 978-3-89500-591-6.
  4. ^ Sistan and Baluchestan Province tabnak.ir Retrieved 20 July 2020
  5. ^ "إيران.. مقتل 4 من الحرس الثوري في سيستان وبلوشستان". سكاي نيوز عربية. 2021-07-24. Retrieved 2021-07-24.
  6. ^ "Sistan and Baluchestan (Iran): Counties & Cities - Population Statistics, Charts and Map". www.citypopulation.de. Retrieved 2021-07-17.
  7. ^ http://www.investiniran.ir/OIETA_content///fa/pprojects/chabahar.pdf
  8. ^ "From Gwadar to Chabahar, the Makran Coast Is Becoming an Arena for Rivalry Between Powers". The Wire.

وصلات خارجية

 

محافظة سيستان وبلوچستان

العاصمة زاهدان
المقاطعات

إیرانشهر | چابهار | خاش | دلگان | زابل | زاهدان | زهک | سراوان | سرباز | کنارک | نیک‌شهر

المدن

اسپکه | إیرانشهر | بزمان | بم‌پور | بـِنِت | بنجار | پیشین | جالق | چابهار | خاش | دوست‌محمد | راسک | زابل | زابلی | زاهدان | زهک | سراوان | سرباز | سوران | سیرکان | فنوج | قصرقند | کنارک | گلمورتی | محمد‌آباد | میرجاوه | نصرت‌آباد | نگور | نوک‌آباد | نیک‌شهر 

المعالم

ارگ کوه خواجه | بازار زاهدان | درخت مکرزن | دریاچه هامون | دهانه غلامان | زیارتگاه مرتضی‌علی | عمارت قدیمی پست چابهار | القلعة البرتغالية (چابهار) | قلعه تیس | قلعه رستم | قلعه سب | قلعه سه کوهه | قلعة ناصري | سنگ‌نگاره‌های کوه نگاران | بازار منطقه آزاد چابهار | موزه ایرانشهر | موزه چابهار | میل نادری 

القرى


الكلمات الدالة: