راينلاند-پالاتينات

(تم التحويل من راينلاند-بفالز)

راينلاند-پالاتينات ( Rhineland-Palatinate ؛ ألمانية: Rheinland-Pfalz؛ [ˈʁaɪnlant ˈpfalts]  (Speaker Icon.svg listen)؛ لوكسمبورگية: [ˈʀɑɪnlɑmˈpfɑlts]؛ قالب:Lang-pfl) هي ولاية غربية ضمن الولايات الستة عشر المكونة لألمانيا. وتغطي مساحة 19846 كم². وعاصمتها هي مدينة ماينز، التي اشتهرت بكونها مدينة گوتنبرگ، مخترع الطباعة. Other cities are Ludwigshafen am Rhein, Koblenz, Trier, Kaiserslautern and Worms.[2] It is bordered by North Rhine-Westphalia, Saarland, Baden-Württemberg and Hesse and by the countries France, Luxembourg and Belgium.

Rheinland-Pfalz
راين لاند-بفالس
العلم الدرع
Flag of Rhineland-Palatinate.svg درع راينلاند-پالاتينات
الموقع
Map of Germany, location of راينلاند-پالاتينات highlighted
الاحداثيات 49°54′N 7°25′E / 49.900°N 7.417°E / 49.900; 7.417Coordinates: 49°54′N 7°25′E / 49.900°N 7.417°E / 49.900; 7.417
منطقة التوقيت CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
الادارة
الدولة Flag of Germany.svg ألمانيا
NUTS Region Flag of Europe.svg DEB
العاصمة ماينز
الوزير-الرئيس Kurt Beck (SPD)
الحزب الحاكم SPD
Votes in Bundesrat 4 (of 69)
الاحصائيات الأساسية
المساحة  19٬847 كم² (7٬663 ميل مربع)
التعداد 4٬053٬000 (11/2006)[1]
 - الكثافة 204 /كم² (529 /sq mi)
معلومات أخرى
GDP/ الاسمي € 97 بليون (2005)
موقع الكتروني rlp.de

Rhineland-Palatinate was established in 1946 after World War II, from parts of the former states of Prussia (part of its Rhineland province), Hesse and Bavaria (its former outlying Palatinate kreis or district), by the French military administration in Allied-occupied Germany. Rhineland-Palatinate became part of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949 and shared the country's only border with the Saar Protectorate until the latter was returned to German control in 1957. Rhineland-Palatinate's natural and cultural heritage includes the extensive Palatinate winegrowing region, picturesque landscapes, and many castles and palaces.[3]

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التاريخ

 
Minister-president Peter Altmeier at the Rittersturz Conference in 1948
 
The Peter Altmeier Monument in Koblenz

The state of Rhineland-Palatinate was founded shortly after the Second World War, on 30 August 1946. It was formed mainly from the southern part of the Prussian Rhine Province (the Regierungsbezirke of Koblenz and Trier), from Rhenish Hesse, from the western part of Nassau and the Bavarian Rhenish Palatinate minus the county of Saarpfalz. The Joint German-Luxembourg Sovereign Region (Gemeinschaftliches deutsch-luxemburgisches Hoheitsgebiet) is the only unincorporated area of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate. This condominium is formed by the rivers Moselle, Sauer, and Our, where they run along the border between Luxembourg and Rhineland-Palatinate or the Saarland.[2]


البزوغ

The present state of Rhineland-Palatinate formed part of the French Zone of Occupation (1945–1949) after the Second World War. It comprised the former Bavarian Palatinate, the Regierungsbezirke ("government districts") of Koblenz and Trier (which formed the southern part of the Prussian Rhine Province), the parts of the Province of Rhenish Hesse (Rheinhessen) west of the River Rhine and belonged to the People's State of Hesse (Volksstaat Hessen), parts of the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau (Montabaur), and the former Oldenburg region around Birkenfeld (Principality of Birkenfeld).

On 10 July 1945, the occupation authority on the soil of the present-day Rhineland-Palatinate transferred from the Americans to the French. To begin with, the French divided the region provisionally into two "upper presidiums" (Oberpräsidien), Rhineland-Hesse-Nassau (for the hitherto Prussian government districts and regions of Koblenz, Trier, and Montabaur) and Hesse-Palatinate (for the hitherto Bavarian Palatinate and old Hessian-Darmstadt province of Rhenish Hesse). The formation of the state was ordained on 30 August 1946, the last state in the Western Zone of Occupation to be established, by Regulation No. 57 of the French military government under General Marie-Pierre Kœnig.[4] It was initially called Rhenish-Palatinate (Rheinpfälzisches Land or Land Rheinpfalz); the name Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz) was first confirmed in the constitution of 18 May 1947.[5]

The provisional French government at that time wanted originally to leave the option open of annexing further areas west of the Rhine after the Saarland was turned into a protectorate. When the Americans and British, however, had led the way with the establishment of German states, the French came under increasing pressure and eventually followed their example by setting up the states of Baden, Württemberg-Hohenzollern, and Rhineland-Palatinate. However, the French military government forbade the Saarland from joining Rhineland-Palatinate. Mainz was named as the state capital in the regulation; the "Mixed Commission" (Gemischte Kommission), named as the highest organ of state charged with the administration of the new state and with the preparation of an advisory state assembly, started its work in Mainz. However, war damage and destruction meant that Mainz did not have enough administrative buildings, so the headquarters of the state government and parliament was provisionally established in Koblenz. On 22 November 1946, the constituent meeting of the Advisory State Assembly (Beratende Landesversammlung) took place there, and a draft constitution was drawn up. Previously, local elections had been held. Wilhelm Boden was (after a short term of office as the Oberregierungspräsident of Rhineland-Hesse-Nassau) nominated on 2 December as the minister president of the new state by the French military government.

السنوات المبكرة

Adolf Süsterhenn submitted to the Advisory State Assembly a draft constitution, which was passed after several rounds of negotiation on 25 April 1947 in a final vote, with the absolute majority of the CDU voting for and the SPD and KPD voting against. A point of contention involved the draft constitution providing for separate schools based on Christian denomination. On 18 May 1947 53% of the electorate adopted the Constitution for Rhineland-Palatinate in a referendum. While the Catholic north and west of the new state adopted the constitution by a majority, the majority in Rhenish Hesse and the Palatinate voted against. On the same date the first elections took place for the state parliament, the Landtag of Rhineland-Palatinate. The inaugural assembly of parliament took place on 4 June 1947 in the large city hall at Koblenz. Wilhelm Boden was elected the first minister-president of Rhineland-Palatinate. Just one month later, Peter Altmeier succeeded him.

The constitutional bodies -the Government (Landesregierung), the Parliament (Landtag) and the Constitutional Court (Verfassungsgerichtshof) – established their provisional seat in Koblenz. In the following period, Koblenz and Mainz each emphasized their suitability as the state capital in a public debate. From the beginning, Minister-President Altmeier pressed for Mainz as the capital because he knew that the south of the country, especially the Palatinate, would not accept Koblenz, which was far to the north and formerly Prussian. On 16 May 1950, the Landtag decided to relocate itself and the Landesregierung from Koblenz to Mainz.[6][7][المصدر لا يؤكد ذلك] After the government and parliament moved to Mainz, many state authorities and courts remained in Koblenz, including the Constitutional Court and the State Archives. In addition, the German Federal Archives and Federal Office of Hydrology were established in Koblenz in 1952.

التجميع

A sense of community developed only very gradually in the "land of the retort", which had been established largely without regard to the historical affiliations of its inhabitants. It was given little chance of survival, especially as it had very few large industrial centres. However, the establishment of numerous military bases, both Allied and Bundeswehr, helped to some extent to boost the economy. In 1956, under Article 29 of the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, petitions were made in the regions of Koblenz, Trier, Montabaur, Rhenish Hesse, and Palatinate for their separation from the state and incorporation into the respective states of North Rhine-Westphalia, Hesse, Bavaria, and Baden-Württemberg. All petitions for a referendum except those in the administrative district of Palatinate won the necessary majority; however, almost 20 years passed before the referenda finally took place. On 19 January 1975, none of the regions concerned returned a majority for being transferred to another state. This put an end to decades of discussion. Only the AKK conflict, a dispute over the districts of Mainz-Amöneburg, Mainz-Kastel, and Mainz-Kostheim, has continued to exercise politicians up to the present day.

الجغرافيا

تقع راينلاند-بفالز في غرب ألمانيا. يحد الولاية كل من فرنسا، بلجيكا، لوكسمبورغ وولايات شمال الراين-وستفاليا، سارلاند، هسه و بادن-ڤورتمبرگ.

أنهر الراين، موزل، سار و لان تمر بالولاية، والتي تستخدم للملاحة النهرية. في الشمال الغربي تمتد جبال ايفيل. أيضاً في الجنوب تقع سلسلة جبال هونزروك. الهضاب الجنوبية بالولاية تسمى غابات البفالز.


التقسيم الاداري وأهم المدن

تقسم الولاية إلى 24 دائرة قروية و 12 دائرة مدنية.

 
خريطة مقاطعات راينلاند-پالاتينات:

  1. آرڤايلر
  2. Altenkirchen
  3. Alzey-Worms
  4. Bad Dürkheim
  5. Bad Kreuznach
  6. Bernkastel-Wittlich
  7. Birkenfeld
  8. Bitburg-Prüm
  1. Cochem-Zell
  2. Vulkaneifel
  3. Donnersbergkreis
  4. گرمرزهايم
  5. كايزرزلاوترن
  6. Kusel
  7. Rhein-Pfalz-Kreis
  8. Mainz-Bingen
  1. Mayen-Koblenz
  2. Neuwied
  3. راين-هونزروك
  4. راين-لان
  5. Südliche Weinstraße
  6. Südwestpfalz
  7. ترير-ساربورگ
  8. ڤسترڤالدكرايس

Every district is composed of numerous municipalities, which can consist of cities, villages, or groups of villages known as Verbandsgemeinden. Furthermore there are twelve urban districts which are identified on the map with letters:

  1. فرانكن‌تال (F)
  2. كايزرزلاوترن (Ka)
  3. كوبلنز Coblenz (Ko)
  4. لانداو (La, the main city and an enclave)
  5. لودڤيگس‌هافن (Rheinpfalz-Kreis) (L)
  6. ماينز (M)
  7. Neustadt (Weinstraße) (N)
  8. Pirmasens (P)
  9. شپاير Spires (S)
  10. ترير (T)
  11. ڤورمز (W)
  12. تسڤاي‌بروكن (Z)

ماينز هي أكبر مدينة بالولاية، عدد سكانها يناهز 185,000 نسمة (2002). أهم المدن الأخرى: كوبلنز، كايزرزلاوترن، ترير ولودڤيگس‌هافن.

السكان

التعداد التاريخي
السنةتعداد±% سنوياً
18151٬202٬412—    
18351٬614٬684+1.48%
18711٬832٬388+0.35%
19052٬434٬505+0.84%
19392٬959٬994+0.58%
19503٬004٬784+0.14%
19613٬417٬116+1.18%
19703٬645٬437+0.72%
19753٬665٬777+0.11%
19803٬642٬482−0.13%
19853٬615٬049−0.15%
19903٬763٬510+0.81%
19953٬977٬919+1.11%
20004٬034٬557+0.28%
20054٬058٬843+0.12%
20104٬003٬745−0.27%
20154٬052٬803+0.24%
20184٬084٬844+0.26%
source:[8]
تعداد الجاليات الأجنبية
المقيمة (2017)
[9]
الجنسية التعداد
  تركيا 58,130
  پولندا 43,635
  جامعة الدول العربية 38,745
  إيطاليا 30,480
  رومانيا 30,245
  بلغاريا 18,310
  أفغانستان 12,680
  كرواتيا 12,600
  روسيا 10,270
  كوسوڤو 10,130
  المجر 9,680
  اليونان 8,965
  الولايات المتحدة 8,380
  الپرتغال 8,325
  فرنسا 8,250
  لوكسمبورگ 8,195
  هولندا 6,375
  صربيا 6,210
  البوسنة والهرسك 5,985
  إسپانيا 5,655
  أوكرانيا 5,280
  النمسا 5,140
  تايلند 4,225
  المملكة المتحدة 4,185
  شمال مقدونيا 4,015
  كندا 540
أفريقيا 21,705
باقي أوروپا[أ] 7,295
باقي آسيا[ب] 36,195


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أكبر المدن

The following table shows the ten largest cities of Rhineland-Palatinate:[10]

Pos. Name Pop. 2017 Area (km2) Pop. per km2
1 Mainz 215,110 98 2,201
2 Ludwigshafen am Rhein 168,497 77 2,176
3 Koblenz 113,844 105 1,082
4 Trier 110,013 117 940
5 Kaiserslautern 99,684 140 714
6 Worms 83,081 109 764
7 Neuwied 64,661 87 748
8 Neustadt an der Weinstraße 53,353 117 456
9 Speyer 50,931 43 1,192
10 Bad Kreuznach 50,484 56 909

الإحصائيات الحيوية

[11]

  • Births from January–August 2016 = 24,871
  • Births from January–August 2017 =   24,784
  • Deaths from January–August 2016 = 30,572
  • Deaths from January–August 2017 = 32,167
  • Natural growth from January–August 2016 = -5,701
  • Natural growth from January–August 2017 =   -7,383

الدين

اعتبارا من 2018, 40.3% of the population of the state adhered to the Roman Catholic Church and 26.8% to the Evangelical Church in Germany; 32.9% of the population is irreligious or adheres to other religions.[12] Muslims made up 5.0% of the total.[13]

الدين في راينلاند-پالاتينات – 2018
الدين النسبة
Roman Catholics
  
40.3%
EKD Protestants
  
26.8%
Muslims
  
5.0%
Jewish
  
0.5%
Other or none
  
27.4%

الثقافة اليهودية

The league of ShUM-cities in the later Rhineland-Palatinate comprised the Jewish communities of Mainz, Speyer, and Worms, which became the center of Jewish life during medieval times.[14] The Takkanot Shum (بالعبرية: תקנות שו"ם‎), or Enactments of ShU"M were a set of decrees formulated and agreed upon over a period of decades by their Jewish community leaders.[15][16] Today, there are approximately 20,000 Jews (0.5% of the population) living in the state.[17][18]

  1. ^ "Europe" consists of EU states, Albania, Bosnia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Russia, Serbia, Turkey, Ukraine
  2. ^ Total Asia population minus Afghanistan, Syria, Thailand, Vietnam

الاقتصاد والبنية التحتية

اقتصاد الولاية يعتمد بالاساس على الزراعة. 37% من أراضيها تستخدم للزراعة. راينلاند-بفالز شهيرة بكروم العنب فيها، حيث ان حوالي 65% من انتاج ألمانيا من العنب يأتي منها. شركة باسف (BASF) للكيماويات تتخذ من لودفغسهافن مقراً لها. أيضاً يوجد مصانع لشركة السيارات أوبل في كايزرسلاوترن.

البنية التحتية في الولاية هي أقل من مثيلاتها في غرب ألمانيا. جزء كبير من سكان راينلاند-بفالز و خاصة العاصمة ماينز يستخدمون مطار فرانكفورت الدولي الواقع في ولاية هيسين للسفر لقربه عليهم.


التعليم و الثقافة

يوجد في الولاية 6 جامعات و 13 معهد تطبيقي و معهد واحد للادارة. أهم الجامعات: يوهانس غوتنبيرغ بماينز، كايزرسلاوترن التقنية، ترير و كوبلنز-لينداو.

في بداية شهر فبراير/شباط من كل سنة تقام في مدينة ماينز المهرجانات التنكرية الشهيرة.

أحد سباقات الجائزة الكبرى للسيارات (الفورميولا ون) تقام على حلبة نوربورغ بالولاية. أشهر الأندية الكروية: اف سي كايزرسلاوترن و اف سي فاو ماينز.

مواقع الكترونية



قالب:Germany districts Rhineland-Palatinate

  1. ^ "State population". Portal of the Federal Statistics Office Germany. Retrieved 2007-04-25.
  2. ^ أ ب "State Facts of Rhineland-Palatinate". State of Rhineland-Palatinate. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
  3. ^ Rheinland-Pfalz, Staatskanzlei. "english". rlp.de. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
  4. ^ Newssheet of the French Higher Command in Germany, No. 35 (1946), p. 292
  5. ^ "Verfassungen in Rheinland-Pfalz". Verfassungen der Welt (in الألمانية). Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  6. ^ 16 May 1950. Mainz wird Regierungssitz von Rheinland-Pfalz. Archived 24 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine. in: Landeshauptarchiv Koblenz
  7. ^ "Mainz statt Koblenz: 60 Jahre Hauptstadt". Fr-online.de (in الألمانية). 17 May 2010. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
  8. ^ "Statistisches Landesamt Rheinland-Pfalz, Bevölkerungsdichte". 27 December 2012. Archived from the original on 27 December 2012. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  9. ^ "Statistisches Jahrbuch 2018" (PDF). Statistisches Jahrbuch Rheinland-Pfalz. Statistisches Landesamt Rheinland-Pfalz: 61. 2018. ISSN 1863-9100.
  10. ^ "Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany): Counties, Cities and Communes – Population Statistics, Charts and Map". www.citypopulation.de. Retrieved 21 December 2018.
  11. ^ "Bevölkerung". Statistische Ämter des Bundes und der Länder. Retrieved 16 June 2018.
  12. ^ Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland – Kirchemitgliederzahlen Stand 31. Dezember 2018 EKD, January 2020
  13. ^ "Rheinland-Pfalz: Gespräche mit Islamverbänden". Süddeutsche Zeitung. 4 April 2019. Retrieved 27 August 2020.
  14. ^ ShUM-Cities on the Rhine – Jewish heritage for the world
  15. ^ "Application for UNESCO World Heritage "ShUM Cities" > Stadt Worms". www.worms.de.
  16. ^ Charles Hawley: Germany Considers Jewish History for UNESCO Heritage Spiegel-online, 2 August 2012
  17. ^ "Jüdisches Leben blüht auf". Landesregierung Rheinland-Pfalz. 15 April 2014. Retrieved 27 August 2020.
  18. ^ "Antisemitismusbeauftragter: Juden sind verunsichert". Die Welt. 22 May 2019. Retrieved 27 August 2020.