الأمريكان الأفارقة

(تم التحويل من أمريكيون أفارقة)

الأفارقة الأمريكيون هم مجموعة عرقية من أصول أفريقية تعيش في القارتين الأمريكيتين ، ويستخدم المصطلح بشكل خاص للإشارة إلى أولئك الذين من أصول أفريقية ويعيشون في أمريكا الشمالية ، ويعود أصل معظم هؤلاء إلى سكان أفارقة تم إستعبادهم و استجلابهم من أفريقيا إلى الأمريكيتين من قبل تجار الرقيق والنخاسة البيض خلال النصف الثاني من السنوات الألف الماضية وذلك للعمل بالسخرة في النشاطات الزراعية والصناعية التي كان البيض يسيرونها في ما سُمّي العالم الجديد.

الأمريكان الأفارقة
Frederick Douglass (2).jpgMichael Jordan.jpgHarriet Tubman cropped.jpg
Condoleezza Rice cropped.jpgMartin Luther King Jr NYWTS.jpgColin Powell official Secretary of State photo.jpg
Malcolm X NYWTS 2a.jpgOfficial portrait of Barack Obama.jpgWEB DuBois 1918.jpg
Oprah Winfrey cropped.jpgMiles Davis by Palumbo cropped.jpgRonald mcnair.jpg
التعداد الإجمالي
الأمريكان الأفارقة
37,334,570[1]
12.38% من إجمالي تعداد الولايات المتحدة
سود غير هسپانيين
36,657,280[1]
12.15% من إجمالي تعداد الولايات المتحدة
هسپانيون سود
677,290[1]
0.23% من إجمالي تعداد الولايات المتحدة
المناطق ذات التواجد المعتبر
 الولايات المتحدة
(أساساً في الولايات الجنوبية)
40.7 million[2][3]
سيراليون سيراليون
(تسمى كريو)
340,000
Flag of Liberia.svg ليبيريا
(يسمون Americo-Liberians)
150,000
Flag of the United Kingdom.png المملكة المتحدة
(African American Britons)
30,000
نوڤا سكوشيا Nova Scotia, Canada
(Black Nova Scotians)
19,230
اللغات
الإنگليزية الأمريكية • African American Vernacular English • أقليات اسبانية • الفرنسية • indigenous اللغات الأفريقية
الديانة
مسيحية (معظمهم بروتستانت أو كاثوليك رومان) • إسلام • غيرهم
الجماعات العرقية ذات الصلة
African-Native Americans • Americo-Liberian • Afro-Latin American
ع  ن  ت

African Americans constitute the third largest ethnic group and the second largest racial group in the US, after White Americans and Hispanic and Latino Americans.[4] Most African Americans are descendants of enslaved peoples within the boundaries of the present United States.[5][6] On average, African Americans are of West/Central African and European descent, and some also have Native American ancestry.[7] According to U.S. Census Bureau data, African immigrants generally do not self-identify as African American. The overwhelming majority of African immigrants identify instead with their own respective ethnicities (≈95%).[8] Immigrants from some Caribbean, Central American, and South American nations and their descendants may or may not also self-identify with the term.[9]

African-American history began in the 17th century, with Africans from West Africa being sold to European slave traders and transported across the Atlantic to the Thirteen Colonies. After arriving in the Americas, they were sold as slaves to European colonists and put to work on plantations, particularly in the southern colonies. A few were able to achieve freedom through manumission or escape and founded independent communities before and during the American Revolution. After the United States was founded in 1783, most black people continued to be enslaved, being mostly concentrated in the American South, with four million enslaved only liberated during and at the end of the Civil War in 1865.[10] Due to white supremacy, most were treated as second-class citizens. The Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U.S. citizenship to whites only, and only white men who owned property could vote.[11][12] These circumstances changed in Reconstruction, further development of the black community, participation in the great military conflicts of the United States, substantial migration out of the South, the elimination of legal racial segregation, and the civil rights movement which sought political and social freedom. In 2008, Barack Obama became the first African American to be elected President of the United States.[13]

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تاريخ

The vast majority of those who were enslaved and transported in the transatlantic slave trade were people from Central and West Africa, who had been sold by other West Africans, or by half-European "merchant princes"[14] to European slave traders (with a small number being captured directly by the slave traders in coastal raids), who brought them to the Americas.[15]

The first African slaves arrived via Santo Domingo to the San Miguel de Gualdape colony (most likely located in the Winyah Bay area of present-day South Carolina), founded by Spanish explorer Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón in 1526.[16] The ill-fated colony was almost immediately disrupted by a fight over leadership, during which the slaves revolted and fled the colony to seek refuge among local Native Americans. De Ayllón and many of the colonists died shortly afterwards of an epidemic and the colony was abandoned. The settlers and the slaves who had not escaped returned to Haiti, whence they had come.[16]

The marriage between Luisa de Abrego, a free black domestic servant from Seville and Miguel Rodríguez, a white Segovian conquistador in 1565 in St. Augustine (Spanish Florida), is the first known and recorded Christian marriage anywhere in what is now the continental United States.[17]

The first recorded Africans in English America (including most of the future United States) were "20 and odd negroes" who came to Jamestown, Virginia via Cape Comfort in August 1619 as indentured servants.[18] As many Virginian settlers began to die from harsh conditions, more and more Africans were brought to work as laborers.[19]

 
Slaves processing tobacco in 17th-century Virginia, illustration from 1670

An indentured servant (who could be white or black) would work for several years (usually four to seven) without wages. The status of indentured servants in early Virginia and Maryland was similar to slavery. Servants could be bought, sold, or leased and they could be physically beaten for disobedience or running away. Unlike slaves, they were freed after their term of service expired or was bought out, their children did not inherit their status, and on their release from contract they received "a year's provision of corn, double apparel, tools necessary", and a small cash payment called "freedom dues".[20]

Africans could legally raise crops and cattle to purchase their freedom.[21] They raised families, married other Africans and sometimes intermarried with Native Americans or European settlers.[22]

 
The first slave auction at New Amsterdam in 1655, illustration from 1895 by Howard Pyle[23]

By the 1640s and 1650s, several African families owned farms around Jamestown and some became wealthy by colonial standards and purchased indentured servants of their own. In 1640, the Virginia General Court recorded the earliest documentation of lifetime slavery when they sentenced John Punch, a Negro, to lifetime servitude under his master Hugh Gwyn for running away.[24][25]

In the Spanish Florida some Spanish married or had unions with Pensacola, Creek or African women, both slave and free, and their descendants created a mixed-race population of mestizos and mulattos. The Spanish encouraged slaves from the colony of Georgia to come to Florida as a refuge, promising freedom in exchange for conversion to Catholicism. King Charles II issued a royal proclamation freeing all slaves who fled to Spanish Florida and accepted conversion and baptism. Most went to the area around St. Augustine, but escaped slaves also reached Pensacola. St. Augustine had mustered an all-black militia unit defending Spanish Florida as early as 1683.[26]

One of the Dutch African arrivals, Anthony Johnson, would later own one of the first black "slaves", John Casor, resulting from the court ruling of a civil case.[27][28]

The popular conception of a race-based slave system did not fully develop until the 18th century. The Dutch West India Company introduced slavery in 1625 with the importation of eleven black slaves into New Amsterdam (present-day New York City). All the colony's slaves, however, were freed upon its surrender to the English.[29]

 
Reproduction of a handbill advertising a slave auction in Charleston, South Carolina, in 1769.

Massachusetts was the first English colony to legally recognize slavery in 1641. In 1662, Virginia passed a law that children of enslaved women took the status of the mother, rather than that of the father, as under common law. This legal principle was called partus sequitur ventrum.[30][31]

By an act of 1699, the colony ordered all free blacks deported, virtually defining as slaves all people of African descent who remained in the colony.[32] In 1670, the colonial assembly passed a law prohibiting free and baptized blacks (and Indians) from purchasing Christians (in this act meaning White Europeans) but allowing them to buy people "of their owne nation".[33]

In the Spanish Louisiana although there was no movement toward abolition of the African slave trade, Spanish rule introduced a new law called coartación, which allowed slaves to buy their freedom, and that of others.[34] Although some did not have the money to buy their freedom that government measures on slavery allowed a high number of free blacks. That brought problems to the Spaniards with the French Creoles who also populated Spanish Louisiana, French creoles cited that measure as one of the system's worst elements.[35] In spite of that, there was a greater number of slaves as the years passed, as also the entire Spanish Louisiana population increased.

The earliest African-American congregations and churches were organized before 1800 in both northern and southern cities following the Great Awakening. By 1775, Africans made up 20% of the population in the American colonies, which made them the second largest ethnic group after English Americans.[36]


من الثورة الأمريكية إلى الحرب الأهلية


ديمغرافيا

 
African Americans as percent of population, 2000.
السنة عدد % من إجمالي السكان عبيد % في العبودية
1790 757,208 19.3% (أعلى) 697,681 92%
1800 1,002,037 18.9% 893,602 89%
1810 1,377,808 19.0% 1,191,362 86%
1820 1,771,656 18.4% 1,538,022 87%
1830 2,328,642 18.1% 2,009,043 86%
1840 2,873,648 16.8% 2,487,355 87%
1850 3,638,808 15.7% 3,204,287 88%
1860 4,441,830 14.1% 3,953,731 89%
1870 4,880,009 12.7% - -
1880 6,580,793 13.1% - -
1890 7,488,788 11.9% - -
1900 8,833,994 11.6% - -
1910 9,827,763 10.7% - -
1920 10.5 مليون 9.9% - -
1930 11.9 مليون 9.7% (أقل) - -
1940 12.9 مليون 9.8% - -
1950 15.0 مليون 10.0% - -
1960 18.9 مليون 10.5% - -
1970 22.6 مليون 11.1% - -
1980 26.5 مليون 11.7% - -
1990 30.0 مليون 12.1% - -
2000 36.6 مليون 12.3% - -

مواضيع سياسية واجتماعية

 
President-elect Barack Obama with wife Michelle and daughters, Malia Ann and Sasha


التغطية الإعلامية والإخبارية

 
BET founder Robert L. Johnson with U.S. President George W. Bush


الحالة الإقتصادية

 
Oprah Winfrey, the wealthiest African American of the 20th century[37][38][39]


تأثيرهم الثقافي في الولايات المتحدة

 
The King & Carter Jazzing Orchestra photographed in Houston, Texas, January 1921


الذكرى السياسية

 
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. remains the most prominent political leader in the American civil rights movement and perhaps the most influential African American political figure in general.

مصطلح "الأمريكان الأفارقة"

مناحي سياسية


الهامش

  1. ^ أ ب ت U.S. Census Bureau; [1]; Data Set: 2007 American Community Survey; Survey: 2007 American Community Survey. Retrieved 2008-01-24
  2. ^ 13.5% of US population, 2005
  3. ^ "US Census Bureau, racial breakdown of the United States in 2005". Retrieved 2006-11-20.
  4. ^ American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau. "United States – QT-P4. Race, Combinations of Two Races, and Not Hispanic or Latino: 2000". Factfinder.census.gov. Archived from the original on June 6, 2011. Retrieved January 20, 2011.
  5. ^ Gomez, Michael A: Exchanging Our Country Marks: The Transformation of African Identities in the Colonial and Antebellum South, p. 29. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina, 1998.
  6. ^ Rucker, Walter C. (2006). The River Flows On: Black resistance, culture, and identity formation in early America. LSU Press. p. 126. ISBN 978-0-8071-3109-1.
  7. ^ Gates, Henry Louis Jr (2009). In Search of Our Roots: How 19 Extraordinary African Americans Reclaimed Their Past. New York: Crown Publishing. pp. 20–21.
  8. ^ Kusow, AM. "African Immigrants in the United States: Implications for Affirmative Action". Iowa State University. Retrieved May 16, 2016.
  9. ^ "The size and regional distribution of the black population". Lewis Mumford Center. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved October 1, 2007.
  10. ^ "How the end of slavery led to starvation and death for millions of black Americans". The Guardian. October 8, 2015.
  11. ^ Schultz, Jeffrey D. (2002). Encyclopedia of Minorities in American Politics: African Americans and Asian Americans. p. 284. ISBN 9781573561488. Retrieved October 8, 2015.
  12. ^ Leland T. Saito (1998). "Race and Politics: Asian Americans, Latinos, and Whites in a Los Angeles Suburb". p. 154. University of Illinois Press
  13. ^ MacAskill, Ewen; Goldenberg, Suzanne; Schor, Elana (November 5, 2008). "Barack Obama to be America's first black president". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved February 19, 2016.
  14. ^ "Implications of the slave trade for African societies". London: BBC. Retrieved 12 June 2020.
  15. ^ "The capture and sale of slaves". Liverpool: International Slavery Museum. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
  16. ^ أ ب Robert Wright, Richard (1941). "Negro Companions of the Spanish Explorers". Phylon. 2 (4).
  17. ^ J. Michael Francis, PhD, Luisa de Abrego: Marriage, Bigamy, and the Spanish Inquisition, University of Southern Florida, https://laflorida.org/florida-stories/ 
  18. ^ Grizzard Jr., Frank E.; Smith, D. Boyd (2007). Jamestown Colony: A Political, Social, and Cultural History. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO. p. 198. ISBN 978-1-85109-637-4.
  19. ^ Wood, Betty (1997). "Tobacco Slaves: The Chesapeake Colonies". The Origins of American Slavery: Freedom and Bondage in the English Colonies. New York: Hill and Wang. pp. 68–93. ISBN 978-0-8090-1608-2.
  20. ^ Hashaw, Tim (January 21, 2007). "The First Black Americans". U.S. News & World Report. Archived from the original on February 2, 2011. Retrieved February 13, 2008.
  21. ^ "The shaping of Black America: forthcoming 400th celebration". Encyclopedia.com. June 26, 2006. Archived from the original on March 5, 2008. Retrieved January 20, 2011. More than one of |encyclopedia= and |encyclopedia= specified (help)
  22. ^ "The First Black Americans – U.S. News & World Report". Usnews.com. January 29, 2007. Archived from the original on February 2, 2011. Retrieved January 20, 2011.
  23. ^ "New Netherland Institute :: Slave Trade". newnetherlandinstitute.org. New Netherland Institute. Retrieved July 8, 2019.
  24. ^ Jordan, Winthrop (1968). White Over Black: American attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550–1812. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0807871416.
  25. ^ Higginbotham, A. Leon (1975). In the Matter of Color: Race and the American Legal Process: The Colonial Period. Greenwood Press. ISBN 9780195027457.
  26. ^ Gene Allen Smith, Texas Christian University, Sanctuary in the Spanish Empire: An African American officer earns freedom in Florida, National Park Service, https://www.nps.gov/articles/sanctuary-in-the-spanish-empire.htm 
  27. ^ John Henderson Russell, The Free Negro In Virginia, 1619–1865, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1913, pp. 29–30, scanned text online.
  28. ^ Frank W. Sweet (July 2005). Legal History of the Color Line: The Rise and Triumph of the One-Drop Rule. Backintyme. p. 117. ISBN 978-0-939479-23-8.
  29. ^ Hodges, Russel Graham (1999), Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613–1863, Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press 
  30. ^ Taunya Lovell Banks, "Dangerous Woman: Elizabeth Key's Freedom Suit – Subjecthood and Racialized Identity in Seventeenth Century Colonial Virginia", 41 Akron Law Review 799 (2008), Digital Commons Law, University of Maryland Law School. Retrieved April 21, 2009
  31. ^ PBS. Africans in America: the Terrible Transformation. "From Indentured Servitude to Racial Slavery." Accessed September 13, 2011.
  32. ^ William J. Wood, "The Illegal Beginning of American Slavery", ABA Journal, 1970, American Bar Association
  33. ^ Russell, John H. (June 1916). "Colored Freemen as Slave Owners in Virginia". Journal of Negro History. 1 (3): 233–242. doi:10.2307/3035621. JSTOR 3035621.
  34. ^ [2][dead link] Berquist, Emily. Early Anti-Slavery Sentiment in the Spanish Atlantic World, 1765–1817
  35. ^ Slavery in Spanish Colonial Louisiana, knowlouisiana.org, https://www.knowlouisiana.org/entry/slavery-in-spanish-colonial-louisiana, retrieved on July 21, 2018 
  36. ^ "Scots to Colonial North Carolina Before 1775". Dalhousielodge.org. n.d. Archived from the original on February 19, 2012. Retrieved April 20, 2012.
  37. ^ "Oprah Winfrey the richest black person in the world". African Echo. 43. 2006-09-11. Retrieved 2006-09-11.
  38. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة roles
  39. ^ "#562 Oprah Winfrey". Forbes Special Report: The World's Billionaires. 2006. Retrieved 2006-09-11.


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المصادر

  • Brandon S. Centerwall, "Race, Socioeconomic Status and Domestic Homicide, Atlanta, 1971-72", 74 AM. J. PUB. HLTH. 813, 815 (1984)
  • Darnell F. Hawkins, "Inequality, Culture, and Interpersonal Violence", 12 HEALTH AFFAIRS 80 (1993)
  • Jerome A. Neapolitan, "Cross-National Variation in Homicide; Is Race A Factor?" 36 CRIMINOLOGY 139 (1998)
  • Bohlen, C. "Does She Say the Same Things in her Native Tongue?" New York Times, May 18, 1986
  • Felder, J. (1992) From the Statue of Liberty to the Statue of Bigotry. New York: Jack Felder.
  • Felder, J. "Black Origins and Lady Liberty". Daily Challenge. July 16, 1990
  • Sinclair, T. Was Original Statue a Tribute to Blacks? New York Voice, July 5, 1986
  • The New York Post, "Statue of Liberty" June 17, 1986.
  • Altman, Susan "The Encyclopedia of African-American Heritage"
  • The Music of Black Americans: A History. Eileen Southern. W. W. Norton & Company; 3rd edition, (1997). ISBN 0-393-97141-4
  • Stewart, Earl L. (1998). African American Music: An Introduction. ISBN 0-02-860294-3.

قراءات اضافية

  • Jack Salzman, ed., Encyclopedia of Afro-American culture and history, New York, NY  : Macmillan Library Reference USA, 1996
  • African American Lives, edited by Henry L. Gates, Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, Oxford University Press, 2004 - more than 600 biographies
  • From Slavery to Freedom. A History of African Americans, by John Hope Franklin, Alfred Moss, McGraw-Hill Education 2001, standard work, first edition in 1947
  • Black Women in America - An Historical Encyclopedia, Darlene Clark Hine (Editor), Rosalyn Terborg-Penn (Editor), Elsa Barkley Brown (Editor), Paperback Edition, Indiana University Press 2005
  • van Sertima, Ivan, "They Came Before Columbus"
  • "The Politicization of Changing Terms of Self Reference Among American Slave Descendants", American Speech, v 66, no.2, Summer 1991, p. 133-46

وصلات خارجية