نظائر الهيدروجين

Hydrogen (1H) has three naturally occurring isotopes, sometimes denoted 1H, 2H, and 3H. 1H and 2H are stable, while 3H has a half-life of 12.32 ± 0.02 years.[1][nb 1] Heavier isotopes also exist, all of which are synthetic and have a half-life of less than one zeptosecond (10−21 s).[2][3] Of these, 5H is the least stable, while 7H is the most.

Main isotopes of الهيدروجين
Iso­tope Decay
abun­dance half-life (t1/2) mode pro­duct
1H [0.999720.99999] stable
2H [0.000010.00028] stable
3H ضئيل 12.32(2) y β 3He
The three most stable isotopes of hydrogen: protium (A = 1), deuterium (A = 2), and tritium (A = 3).

Hydrogen is the only element whose isotopes have different names that remain in common use today: the 2H (or hydrogen-2) isotope is deuterium[4] and the 3H (or hydrogen-3) isotope is tritium.[5] The symbols D and T are sometimes used for deuterium and tritium. The IUPAC accepts the D and T symbols, but recommends using standard isotopic symbols (2H and 3H) instead to avoid confusion in the alphabetic sorting of chemical formulas.[6] The isotope 1H, with no neutrons, is sometimes called protium.[7] (During the early study of radioactivity, some other heavy radioactive isotopes were given names, but such names are rarely used today.)

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قائمة النظائر

قالب:Isotopes table |- | 1H | 1 | 0 | 1.007825031898±0.000000000014 | colspan=3 align=center|Stable[n 1][n 2] | 1/2+ | colspan="2" style="text-align:center" | [0.99972, 0.99999][8] | Protium |- | 2H (D)[n 3][n 4] | 1 | 1 | 2.014101777844±0.000000000015 | colspan=3 align=center |Stable | 1+ | colspan="2" style="text-align:center" | [0.00001, 0.00028][8] | Deuterium |- | 3H (T)[n 5] | 1 | 2 | 3.016049281320±0.000000000081 | 12.32±0.02 y | β | 3He | 1/2+ | Trace[n 6] | | Tritium

|- | 4H | 1 | 3 | 4.026431867±0.000107354 | 139±10 ys | n | 3H | 2− | | |- | 5H | 1 | 4 | 5.035311492±0.000096020 | 86±6 ys | 2n | 3H | (1/2+) | | |- | rowspan=2|6H | rowspan=2|1 | rowspan=2|5 | rowspan=2|6.044955437±0.000272816 | rowspan=2|294±67 ys | 3n | 3H | rowspan=2|2−# | rowspan=2| | rowspan=2| |- | 4n | 2H |- | 7H | 1 | 6 | 7.052749±0.001078# | 652±558 ys | 4n | 3H | 1/2+# | | قالب:Isotopes table/footer


Hydrogen-1 (Protium)

 
Protium, the most common isotope of hydrogen, consists of one proton and one electron. Unique among all stable isotopes, it has no neutrons. (see diproton for a discussion of why others do not exist)



Hydrogen-2 (Deuterium)

 
A deuterium atom contains one proton, one neutron, and one electron.



Hydrogen-3 (Tritium)

 
A tritium atom contains one proton, two neutrons, and one electron.




Hydrogen-4

Hydrogen-5

Hydrogen-6

Hydrogen-7

Decay chains

 

Decay times are in yoctoseconds (10−24 s) for all these isotopes except 3H, which is expressed in years.

انظر أيضاً

الهوامش

  1. ^ Note that NUBASE2020 uses the tropical year to convert between years and other units of time, not the Gregorian year. The relationship between years and other time units in NUBASE2020 is as follows: 1 y = 365.2422 d = 31 556 926 s

المصادر

  1. ^ Kondev, F. G.; Wang, M.; Huang, W. J.; Naimi, S.; Audi, G. (March 2021). "The NUBASE2020 evaluation of nuclear physics properties \ast". Chinese Physics C (in الإنجليزية). 45 (3): 030001. doi:10.1088/1674-1137/abddae. ISSN 1674-1137.
  2. ^ Y. B. Gurov; et al. (2004). "Spectroscopy of superheavy hydrogen isotopes in stopped-pion absorption by nuclei". Physics of Atomic Nuclei. 68 (3): 491–497. Bibcode:2005PAN....68..491G. doi:10.1134/1.1891200. S2CID 122902571.
  3. ^ A. A. Korsheninnikov; et al. (2003). "Experimental Evidence for the Existence of 7H and for a Specific Structure of 8He". Physical Review Letters. 90 (8): 082501. Bibcode:2003PhRvL..90h2501K. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.90.082501. PMID 12633420.
  4. ^ IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). Online corrected version:  (2006–) "deuterium".
  5. ^ IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). Online corrected version:  (2006–) "tritium".
  6. ^ قالب:RedBook2005
  7. ^ IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). Online corrected version:  (2006–) "protium".
  8. ^ أ ب "Atomic Weight of Hydrogen". CIAAW. Retrieved 24 June 2021.

قراءات إضافية

قالب:Navbox element isotopes
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