افتح القائمة الرئيسية

ميناموتو نو يوريتومو

ميناموتو نو يوري‌تومو (源 頼朝, عاش 9 مايو 11479 فبراير 1199) هو قائد ياباني، انتقلت السلطة في عهده من الأباطرة إلى الحكام العسكريين. يعزوا المؤرخون إليه تأسيس ما عرف باسم نظام الـ"شوگونات"، ساد هذا النظام الإقطاعي لقرون طويلة (حتى سنة 1868 وبداية إصلاحات عهد "مييجي"). حكم من 1192 حتى 1199.[2]

Minamoto no Yoritomo
源頼朝
Minamoto no Yoritomo.jpg
"ميناموتو نو يوريتومو" (源頼朝) (ع. 1147-1199) أول شوگونات اليابان
شـُگون كاماكورا الأول
في المنصب
1192–1199
العاهل گو-توبا
سبقه منصب مستحدث
خلفه ميناموتو نو يوري‌إيه
Head of the Kawachi Genji
سبقه Minamoto no Yoshitomo
خلفه Minamoto no Yoriie
تفاصيل شخصية
وُلِد May 9, 1147[بحاجة لمصدر]
Atsuta, Owari Province
توفي February 9, 1199 (aged 52)[1]
Kamakura
القومية Japanese
الزوج Hōjō Masako
الأقارب Kame no Mae (concubine)
Daishin no Tsubone (concubine)
الأنجال

Ohime

التوقيع

كان "يوريتومو" من أبناء عائلة الـ"ميناموتو" الشهيرة، إحدى أهم عشائر المحاربين في اليابان، ترجع في أصولها إلى العائلة الإمبراطورية. بعد أن قاد أفراد عشيرته حركة تمرد فاشلة ضد عشيرة الـ"تائيرا" (والتي كانت تتحكم في مقاليد الحكم في البلاد)، قتل أبوه وكان مصير "يوريتومو" النفي. تزوج أثناء منفاه من إحدى بنات عشيرة الـ"هوجو" (استولوا بعدها على مقاليد الحكم بعد وفاته)، كان أفراد هذه العشيرة يتولون مهمة حراسته (أثناء منفاه).

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فهرست

النشأة

 
بوابة سـِيْ‌گان-جي في ناگويا، موقع منزل العائلة الأسبق ومسقط رأسه.

Yoritomo was the third son of Minamoto no Yoshitomo, heir of the Minamoto (Seiwa Genji) clan, and his official wife, Yura-Gozen, daughter of Fujiwara no Suenori, head of Atsuta Shrine and a member of the illustrious Fujiwara clan. Yoritomo was born in the family villa, on the western side of Atsuta Shrine, in Atsuta, Nagoya, Owari Province[3][4][5] (present-day Seigan-ji). At that time Yoritomo's grandfather Minamoto no Tameyoshi was the head of the Minamoto. Like Benkei, his childhood name was Oniwakamaru (鬼武丸). He was a descendant of Emperor Seiwa.[1]


In 1156, factional divisions in the court erupted into open warfare within the capital. The cloistered Emperor Toba and his son Emperor Go-Shirakawa sided with the son of Fujiwara regent Fujiwara no Tadazane, Fujiwara no Tadamichi as well as Taira no Kiyomori (heir of the Taira clan at the time),while Cloistered Emperor Sutoku sided with Tadazane's younger son, Fujiwara no Yorinaga. This is known as the Hōgen Rebellion.[6]:210–211, 255

The Minamoto clan were split. The head of the clan, Tameyoshi, sided with Sutoku. However, his son, Yoshitomo (father of Yoritomo), sided with Toba and Go-Shirakawa, as well as Kiyomori. In the end, the supporters of Go-Shirakawa won the civil war, thus ensuring victory for Yoshitomo and Kiyomori. Sutoku was placed under house arrest, and Yorinaga was fatally wounded in battle. Tameyoshi was executed by the forces of Yoshitomo. Nonetheless, Go-Shirakawa and Kiyomori were ruthless, and Yoshitomo found himself as the head of the Minamoto clan, while Yoritomo became the heir.[6]

Yoritomo and the Minamoto clan descended from the imperial family on his father's side. Nonetheless, in Kyoto, the Taira clan, now under the leadership of Kiyomori, and the Minamoto clan, under the leadership of Yoshitomo, began to factionalize again.[6]:239–241, 256–257

Four years later, Kiyomori supported Fujiwara no Michinori, also known as Shinzei. However, Yoshitomo supported Fujiwara no Nobuyori. This was known as the Heiji Rebellion. The ex-emperor mansion were burned, while Shinzei was captured and decapitated. Nonetheless, the Minamoto were not well prepared, and the Taira took control of Kyoto. Yoshitomo fled the capital but was later betrayed and executed by a retainer.[6]

In the aftermath, harsh terms were imposed on the Minamoto and their allies. Only Yoshitomo's three young boys remained alive, so that Kiyomori and the Taira clan were now the undisputed leaders of Japan.[6]:258–260 Yoritomo, the new head of the Minamoto, was exiled. Yoritomo was not executed by Kiyomori because of pleas from Kiyomori's stepmother. Yoritomo's brothers, Minamoto no Noriyori and Minamoto no Yoshitsune were also allowed to live.[7]

Yoritomo grew up in exile. He married into the Hōjō clan, led by Hōjō Tokimasa, marrying Tokimasa's daughter, Hōjō Masako.[7]:147[6]:371 Meanwhile, he was notified of events in Kyoto.[8]


العائلة

الدعوة إلى السلاح وحرب گن‌پـِيْ (1180-1185)

انضم سنة 1180 إلى عشيرته الـ"ميناموتو" أثناء إحدى حركات التمرد الجديدة. ثم أصبح قائدها الجديد. اتخذ أثناء هذه الفترة من "كاماكورا" مقر له.

قام قريبه "يوشي-ناكا" بطرد عشيرة الـ"تائيرا" من العاصمة الإمبراطورية "كيوتو" سنة 1183. بعدما قامت قوات الأخير بأعمال تخريبية في المدينة، تدخل "يوريتومو" وشقيقه "ميناموتو نو يوشي-تسونه" وقاموا بالقضاء على قواته. شكل "يوريتومو" حكومة مستقلة في "كاماكورا" (بقي الإمبراطور يحكم صوريا في العاصمة "كيوتو")، اعترف البلاط الإمبراطوري بسلطة هذه الحكومة. تشكلت أثناء هذه القترة طبقات اجتماعية جديدة لم يعهدها المجتمع الياباني من قبل، كان من أهمها المحاربين أو الـ"ساموراي". سنة 1185 قامت قوات "ميناموتو نو يوريتومو" يقودها شقيقه "يوشي-تسونه" بالقضاء على شوكة عشيرة الـ"تائيرا" نهائيا بعد دحر قواتها في معركة دان نو أورا البحرية. تسببت نجاحات "يوشي-تسونه" المتتالية في إشغال غيرة أخيه عليه، قرر الأخير وبمساعدة من الإمبراطور مطاردته، ضيق الخناق عليه وأصبحت قوات الجيش تطلبه أينما حل في البلاد، انتهى أمر "يوشي-تسونه" بأن قرر الانتحار طواعية عام 1189.

تمسك "يوريتومو" بمقره في "كاماكورا"، ورغم كونه السيد الأول على البلاد بلا منازع، لم يبلغ به الطمع يوما إلى أن يفكر في اعتلاء العرش الإمبراطوري، فضل أن يخلع على نفسه لقب "شوگون" (将軍) سنة 1192. يعتبر هذا اللقب اختصارا للقب آخر هو "سيئي-تائي-شوگون" (征夷大将軍) ويمكن ترجمته بـ"قائد الذين يحاربون البرابرة" نسبة إلى الحملات التي شنها البلاط قبل قرون في جزيرة "هوكايدو" ضد السكان المحليين أو "البرابرة".

أصبحت له شرعية أكبر في البلاد، وصار بإمكانه قمع أي حركة تمرد مادام يحكم باسم الإمبراطور. بعد وفاته سنة 1199، استمرت عشيرة الـ"ميناموتو" في حكم حكم البلاد حتى 1219، حل محلهم بعدها عشيرة الـ"هوجو" (من أخوال الـ"ميناموتو") والذين فرضوا بدورهم نظام الوصاية على الـ"شوگونات" الذين تعاقبوا، استمر الحال على هذا حتى سنة 1333. أصبح نظام حكم الـ"شوگونات" الذي أرسى دعائمه "ميناموتو نو يوريتومو"، السائد في اليابان، وظل العمل به حتى "إستعراش مييجي" سنة 1868.

السنوات اللاحقة والوفاة

In December 1185, Go-Shirakawa granted Yoritomo the authority to collect the commissariat tax (the hyoro-mai or levy contribution of rice) and to appoint stewards (jito) and constables (shugo). Thus the Throne "handed to the leader of the military class effective jurisdiction in matters of land tenure and the income derived from agriculture".[مطلوب إسناد] In the summer of 1189, Yoritomo invaded and subjugated Mutsu Province and Dewa Province. In December 1190 Yoritomo took up residence in his Rokuhara mansion at the capital, the former headquarters of the Taira clan. Upon the death of Go-Shirakawa in the spring of 1192, Go-Toba commissioned Yoritomo Sei-i Tai Shōgun (Generalissimo). Thus a feudal state was now organized in Kamakura while Kyoto was relegated to the role of "national ceremony and ritual".[6]:317–318, 327, 329, 331

Yoritomo gathered his gokenin in May 1193 and arranged a grand hunting event, Fuji no Makigari. On May 16, Yoritomo's 12-year-old son Yoriie shot a deer for the first time. Hunting was stopped and a festival was held in the evening. Yoritomo was rejoiced by his son's achievement and sent a messenger to his wife Masako, but Masako sent the messenger back, saying that a military commander's son being able to shoot a deer is nothing to celebrate.[13]

The Revenge of the Soga Brothers took place on May 28 of the same year at the Fuji no Makigari hunting event. The brothers Soga Sukenari and Soga Tokimune murdered the killer of their father, Kudō Suketsune. The brothers managed to kill 10 other participants until Nitta Tadatsune killed Sukenari. Then, Tokimune raided into Yoritomo's mansion attempting to attack Yoritomo, but was finally taken down by Gosho no Gorōmaru, thus saving Yoritomo from a possible assassination attempt and ending the massacre. After this, Yoritomo took Tokimune in for questioning and had him executed later.[14]

Yoritomo was ordained as a Buddhist monk un 1199 and left his home. He received the Buddhist name Bukōshōgendaizenmon (武皇嘯厚大禅門). He died two days later at the age of 52.

المظهر والشخصية

According to The Tale of Heiji, Yoritomo was "more adult-like than others of his age", and the figure of a young warrior Yoritomo appears in the picture scroll of The Tale of Heiji. Genpei Jōsuiki describes Yoritomo saying "his face is large and appearance is beautiful." The imperial messenger Nakahara no Yasusada, who met Yoritomo in Kamakura in August 1183, said that "he is short and his face is large, his appearance is graceful and language is civilized."[15]

Kujō no Kanezane writes in his diary Tamaha that "Yoritomo's body is of rigorous power, and his fierce nature is accompanied with a clear distinction and firm resolution of the judgement of right and wrong."[16]

Historian Hideo Kuroda organized and examined the portraits and statues of Minamoto no Yoritomo and has concluded as follows. When comparing the statues of Minamoto no Yoritomo in Higashihirozo and Hōjō Tokiyori in Kenchō-ji, from the facial expression to size, they are almost identical, and there is evidence that the kariginu was remodeled into a sokutai, the formal dress of the shogun, by adding a hirao and sekitai. Kuroda argues that the statue was originally a statue of Hōjō Tokiyori sculpted in Kamakura in the 14th century, but after the original statue of Yoritomo was lost, an altered statue of Tokiyori was used to as a replacement. On the other hand, he considers the inscription on the statue of Minamoto no Yoritomo in Kai Province, Zenkō-ji to be the name of the repairer instead of the name of the sculptor, and that it was made at the request of Hōjō Masako in the first quarter of the 13th century. Thus, Kuroda concludes that this statue is the only accurately depicted statue of Minamoto no Yoritomo.[17]


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الذكرى

In the words of George Bailey Sansom, "Yoritomo was a truly great man … his foresight was remarkable, but so was his practical good sense in setting up machinery to match his own expanding power."[6]:334–335

Yoritomo's wife's family, the Hōjō, took control after his death at Kamakura, maintaining power over the shogunate until 1333, under the title of shikken (regent to the shōgun). One of his brothers-in-law was Ashikaga Yoshikane.[18]

The gorintō (stone pagoda) traditionally believed to be his grave (see article Tomb of Minamoto no Yoritomo) is still maintained today, adjacent to Shirahata Shrine, a short distance from the spot believed to be the site of the so-called Ōkura Bakufu, his shogunate's administrative-governmental offices.

 
Grave of Yoritomo in Kamakura

الإشارات الثقافية

He appears as a hero unit in the scenario editor for Age of Empires II: The Age of Kings, and as a hero unit in Total War: Shogun 2

A character named "Yoritomo" appears in Book 6: "The Lords of the Rising Sun" in the Fabled Lands adventure gamebook series, where Yoritomo is the self-proclaimed shōgun and on the verge of war with "Lord Kiyomori".

فترات باكوفو يوري‌تومو

The years in which Yoritomo was shōgun are more specifically identified by more than one era name or nengō.

طالع أيضاً

المصادر


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الهامش

  1. ^ أ ب ميناموتو نو يوريتومو على موسوعة بريتانيكا
  2. ^ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Minamoto no Yoritomo" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 635, p. 635, في كتب گوگل.
  3. ^ "系図纂要(Keizusanyo)"
  4. ^ "尾張名所図会(Owarimeishozue)"
  5. ^ "尾張志(owarishi)"
  6. ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح خ د Sansom, George (1958). A History of Japan to 1334. Stanford University Press. pp. 210–211, 255–258. ISBN 0804705232.
  7. ^ أ ب Sato, Hiroaki (1995). Legends of the Samurai. Overlook Duckworth. p. 30. ISBN 9781590207307.
  8. ^ Turnbull, Stephen (1977). The Samurai, A Military History. MacMillan Publishing Co., Inc. pp. 40, 50–51. ISBN 0026205408.
  9. ^ Hotate, Michihisa (2015). Inseiki Azuma-no-kuni to Runin・Minamoto no Yoritomo no Tachiitchi (院政期東国と流人・源頼朝の位置) & Chusei no Kokudokoken to Tenno・Buke (中世の国土高権と天皇・武家). Japan: Azekurashobo. ISBN 978-4-7517-4640-0.
  10. ^ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Minamoto no Yoriie" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 635, في كتب گوگل.
  11. ^ Nussbaum, p. 634
  12. ^ Turnbull, Stephen (2011-09-20). Samurai: The World of the Warrior (in الإنجليزية). Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 99. ISBN 978-1-84908-996-8.
  13. ^ Azuma Kagami (吾妻鏡). Japan. pp. Article May 22, 1193.
  14. ^ Soga Monogatari (曽我物語). Japan: Shogakukan. 2002. ISBN 4096580538.
  15. ^ Ichiko, Teiji (1975). Nihon Koten Bungaku Zenshū. 30. Japan: Shōgakkan. Heike Monogatari 2. OCLC 703759550.
  16. ^ 熊野歴史研究 [Kumano Historical Research]. Japan: Kumano Rekishi Kenkyūkai, Iwata Shoin. 2008. p. 14. ISSN 1340-542X.
  17. ^ Kuroda, Hideo (2011). 源頼朝の真像 [The True Image of Minamoto no Yoritomo]. Japan: Kadokawa. ISBN 978-4-04-703490-7.
  18. ^ Nussbaum, "Ashikaga Yoshikane" at p. 56., p. 56, في كتب گوگل

وصلات خارجية

  • Ōmachi, by the Kamakura Citizen's Net, accessed on September 30, 2008
  • Atsuta History Course, (include "Seigan-ji Temple" Birthplace of Minamoto-no Yoritomo)
سبقه
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شوگونية كاماكورا
ميناموتو نو يوري‌تومو

1192–1199
تبعه
ميناموتو نو يوري‌إيه

قالب:Shoguns