مجموعة (رياضيات)
في الرياضيات، المجموعة Group هي من اهم اسس و مواضيع الرياضيات التجريدية . اذا أردنا تعريف مبدئي يمكن القول أن كل وحدة تضم أشياء أو عناصر من العالم المادي أو غير المادي، الواقعي أو الخيالي تسمى مجموعة.
يمكن للزمرة ان تكون خالية و لكن لا يمكن لها ان تحتوي على نفس العنصر اكثر من مرة.
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التعريف والتوضيح
المثال الأول: الأعداد الصحيحة
One of the most familiar groups is the set of integers which consists of the numbers
- ..., −4, −3, −2, −1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, ...,^{[1]} together with addition.
The following properties of integer addition serve as a model for the group axioms given in the definition below.
- For any two integers a and b, the sum a + b is also an integer. That is, addition of integers always yields an integer. This property is known as closure under addition.
- For all integers a, b and c, (a + b) + c = a + (b + c). Expressed in words, adding a to b first, and then adding the result to c gives the same final result as adding a to the sum of b and c, a property known as associativity.
- If a is any integer, then 0 + a = a + 0 = a. Zero is called the identity element of addition because adding it to any integer returns the same integer.
- For every integer a, there is an integer b such that a + b = b + a = 0. The integer b is called the inverse element of the integer a and is denoted −a.
The integers, together with the operation +, form a mathematical object belonging to a broad class sharing similar structural aspects. To appropriately understand these structures as a collective, the following definition is developed.
Definition
Richard Borcherds in Mathematicians: An Outer View of the Inner World ^{[2]}
A group is a set, G, together with an operation ⋅ (called the group law of G) that combines any two elements a and b to form another element, denoted a ⋅ b or ab. To qualify as a group, the set and operation, (G, ⋅), must satisfy four requirements known as the group axioms:^{[3]}
- Closure
- For all a, b in G, the result of the operation, a ⋅ b, is also in G.^{b[›]}
- Associativity
- For all a, b and c in G, (a ⋅ b) ⋅ c = a ⋅ (b ⋅ c).
- Identity element
- There exists an element e in G such that, for every element a in G, the equation e ⋅ a = a ⋅ e = a holds. Such an element is unique (see below), and thus one speaks of the identity element.
- Inverse element
- For each a in G, there exists an element b in G, commonly denoted a^{−1} (or −a, if the operation is denoted "+"), such that a ⋅ b = b ⋅ a = e, where e is the identity element.
The result of the group operation may depend on the order of the operands. In other words, the result of combining element a with element b need not yield the same result as combining element b with element a; the equation
- a ⋅ b = b ⋅ a
may not be true for every two elements a and b. This equation always holds in the group of integers under addition, because a + b = b + a for any two integers (commutativity of addition). Groups for which the commutativity equation a ⋅ b = b ⋅ a always holds are called abelian groups (in honor of Niels Henrik Abel). The symmetry group described in the following section is an example of a group that is not abelian.
The identity element of a group G is often written as 1 or 1_{G},^{[4]} a notation inherited from the multiplicative identity. If a group is abelian, then one may choose to denote the group operation by + and the identity element by 0; in that case, the group is called an additive group. The identity element can also be written as id.
The set G is called the underlying set of the group (G, ⋅). Often the group's underlying set G is used as a short name for the group (G, ⋅). Along the same lines, shorthand expressions such as "a subset of the group G" or "an element of group G" are used when what is actually meant is "a subset of the underlying set G of the group (G, ⋅)" or "an element of the underlying set G of the group (G, ⋅)". Usually, it is clear from the context whether a symbol like G refers to a group or to an underlying set.
An alternate (but equivalent) definition is to expand the structure of a group to define a group as a set equipped with three operations satisfying the same axioms as above, with the "there exists" part removed in the two last axioms, these operations being the group law, as above, which is a binary operation, the inverse operation, which is a unary operation and maps a to and the identity element, which is viewed as a 0-ary operation.
As this formulation of the definition avoids existential quantifiers, it is generally preferred for computing with groups and for computer-aided proofs. This formulation exhibits groups as a variety of universal algebra. It is also useful for talking of properties of the inverse operation, as needed for defining topological groups and group objects.
Second example: a symmetry group
Two figures in the plane are congruent if one can be changed into the other using a combination of rotations, reflections, and translations. Any figure is congruent to itself. However, some figures are congruent to themselves in more than one way, and these extra congruences are called symmetries. A square has eight symmetries. These are:
- the identity operation leaving everything unchanged, denoted id;
- rotations of the square around its center by 90° clockwise, 180° clockwise, and 270° clockwise, denoted by r_{1}, r_{2} and r_{3}, respectively;
- reflections about the horizontal and vertical middle line (f_{v} and f_{h}), or through the two diagonals (f_{d} and f_{c}).
These symmetries are functions. Each sends a point in the square to the corresponding point under the symmetry. For example, r_{1} sends a point to its rotation 90° clockwise around the square's center, and f_{h} sends a point to its reflection across the square's vertical middle line. Composing two of these symmetries gives another symmetry. These symmetries determine a group called the dihedral group of degree 4, denoted D_{4}. The underlying set of the group is the above set of symmetries, and the group operation is function composition.^{[5]} Two symmetries are combined by composing them as functions, that is, applying the first one to the square, and the second one to the result of the first application. The result of performing first a and then b is written symbolically from right to left as b ° a ("apply the symmetry b after performing the symmetry a"). (This is the usual notation for composition of functions.)
The group table on the right lists the results of all such compositions possible. For example, rotating by 270° clockwise (r_{3}) and then reflecting horizontally (f_{h}) is the same as performing a reflection along the diagonal (f_{d}). Using the above symbols, highlighted in blue in the group table:
- f_{h} ∘ r_{3} = f_{d}.
id | r_{1} | r_{2} | r_{3} | f_{v} | f_{h} | f_{d} | f_{c} | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
id | id | r_{1} | r_{2} | r_{3} | f_{v} | f_{h} | f_{d} | f_{c} |
r_{1} | r_{1} | r_{2} | r_{3} | id | f_{c} | f_{d} | f_{v} | f_{h} |
r_{2} | r_{2} | r_{3} | id | r_{1} | f_{h} | f_{v} | f_{c} | f_{d} |
r_{3} | r_{3} | id | r_{1} | r_{2} | f_{d} | f_{c} | f_{h} | f_{v} |
f_{v} | f_{v} | f_{d} | f_{h} | f_{c} | id | r_{2} | r_{1} | r_{3} |
f_{h} | f_{h} | f_{c} | f_{v} | f_{d} | r_{2} | id | r_{3} | r_{1} |
f_{d} | f_{d} | f_{h} | f_{c} | f_{v} | r_{3} | r_{1} | id | r_{2} |
f_{c} | f_{c} | f_{v} | f_{d} | f_{h} | r_{1} | r_{3} | r_{2} | id |
The elements id, r_{1}, r_{2}, and r_{3} form a subgroup, highlighted in red (upper left region). A left and right coset of this subgroup is highlighted in green (in the last row) and yellow (last column), respectively. |
Given this set of symmetries and the described operation, the group axioms can be understood as follows:
- The closure axiom demands that the composition b ∘ a of any two symmetries a and b is also a symmetry. Another example for the group operation is
- r_{3} ∘ f_{h} = f_{c},
- The associativity constraint deals with composing more than two symmetries: Starting with three elements a, b and c of D_{4}, there are two possible ways of using these three symmetries in this order to determine a symmetry of the square. One of these ways is to first compose a and b into a single symmetry, then to compose that symmetry with c. The other way is to first compose b and c, then to compose the resulting symmetry with a. The associativity condition
- (a ∘ b) ∘ c = a ∘ (b ∘ c)
While associativity is true for the symmetries of the square and addition of numbers, it is not true for all operations. For instance, subtraction of numbers is not associative: (7 − 3) − 2 = 2 is not the same as 7 − (3 − 2) = 6.(f_{d} ∘ f_{v}) ∘∘ r_{2} = r_{3} ∘ r_{2} = r_{1}, which equals f_{d} ∘ (f_{v} ∘ r_{2}) = f_{d} ∘ f_{h} = r_{1}. - The identity element is the symmetry id leaving everything unchanged: for any symmetry a, performing id after a (or a after id) equals a, in symbolic form,
- id ∘ a = a,
- a ∘ id = a.
- An inverse element undoes the transformation of some other element. Every symmetry can be undone: each of the following transformations—identity id, the reflections f_{h}, f_{v}, f_{d}, f_{c} and the 180° rotation r_{2}—is its own inverse, because performing it twice brings the square back to its original orientation. The rotations r_{3} and r_{1} are each other's inverses, because rotating 90° and then rotation 270° (or vice versa) yields a rotation over 360° which leaves the square unchanged. In symbols,
- f_{h} ∘ f_{h} = id,
- r_{3} ∘ r_{1} = r_{1} ∘ r_{3} = id.
In contrast to the group of integers above, where the order of the operation is irrelevant, it does matter in D_{4}, as, for example, f_{h} ∘ r_{1} = f_{c} but r_{1} ∘ f_{h} = f_{d}. In other words, D_{4} is not abelian, which makes the group structure more difficult than the integers introduced first. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
نتائج مباشرة
تعريف المجموعة يقود إلى عدد من النتائج المباشرة:
- لا يوجد مجموعتين مختلفتين تضمان نفس العناصر.
- يوجد مجموعات تضم مجموعات كعناصر.
- المجموعة الخالية هي مجموعة جزئية من كل مجموعة.
المجموعة الجزئية
إذا كان كل عنصر في المجموعة أ عنصرا في المجموعة ب تسمى عندها المجموعة أ مجموعة جزئية من ب. إذا كانت أ مجموعة جزئية من ب و ب مجموعة جزئية من أ ، عندها يكون أ=ب.
أمثلة وتطبيقات
Examples and applications of groups abound. A starting point is the group Z of integers with addition as group operation, introduced above. If instead of addition multiplication is considered, one obtains multiplicative groups. These groups are predecessors of important constructions in abstract algebra.
Groups are also applied in many other mathematical areas. Mathematical objects are often examined by associating groups to them and studying the properties of the corresponding groups. For example, Henri Poincaré founded what is now called algebraic topology by introducing the fundamental group.^{[6]} By means of this connection, topological properties such as proximity and continuity translate into properties of groups.^{i[›]} For example, elements of the fundamental group are represented by loops. The second image at the right shows some loops in a plane minus a point. The blue loop is considered null-homotopic (and thus irrelevant), because it can be continuously shrunk to a point. The presence of the hole prevents the orange loop from being shrunk to a point. The fundamental group of the plane with a point deleted turns out to be infinite cyclic, generated by the orange loop (or any other loop winding once around the hole). This way, the fundamental group detects the hole.
In more recent applications, the influence has also been reversed to motivate geometric constructions by a group-theoretical background.^{j[›]} In a similar vein, geometric group theory employs geometric concepts, for example in the study of hyperbolic groups.^{[7]} Further branches crucially applying groups include algebraic geometry and number theory.^{[8]}
In addition to the above theoretical applications, many practical applications of groups exist. Cryptography relies on the combination of the abstract group theory approach together with algorithmical knowledge obtained in computational group theory, in particular when implemented for finite groups.^{[9]} Applications of group theory are not restricted to mathematics; sciences such as physics, chemistry and computer science benefit from the concept.
Numbers
Many number systems, such as the integers and the rationals enjoy a naturally given group structure. In some cases, such as with the rationals, both addition and multiplication operations give rise to group structures. Such number systems are predecessors to more general algebraic structures known as rings and fields. Further abstract algebraic concepts such as modules, vector spaces and algebras also form groups.
Integers
The group of integers under addition, denoted , has been described above. The integers, with the operation of multiplication instead of addition, do not form a group. The closure, associativity and identity axioms are satisfied, but inverses do not exist: for example, a = 2 is an integer, but the only solution to the equation a · b = 1 in this case is b = 1/2, which is a rational number, but not an integer. Hence not every element of has a (multiplicative) inverse.^{k[›]}
Rationals
The desire for the existence of multiplicative inverses suggests considering fractions
Fractions of integers (with b nonzero) are known as rational numbers.^{l[›]} The set of all such irreducible fractions is commonly denoted . There is still a minor obstacle for , the rationals with multiplication, being a group: because the rational number 0 does not have a multiplicative inverse (i.e., there is no x such that x · 0 = 1), is still not a group.
However, the set of all nonzero rational numbers does form an abelian group under multiplication, generally denoted .^{m[›]} Associativity and identity element axioms follow from the properties of integers. The closure requirement still holds true after removing zero, because the product of two nonzero rationals is never zero. Finally, the inverse of a/b is b/a, therefore the axiom of the inverse element is satisfied.
The rational numbers (including 0) also form a group under addition. Intertwining addition and multiplication operations yields more complicated structures called rings and—if division is possible, such as in —fields, which occupy a central position in abstract algebra. Group theoretic arguments therefore underlie parts of the theory of those entities.^{n[›]}
Modular arithmetic
In modular arithmetic, two integers are added and then the sum is divided by a positive integer called the modulus. The result of modular addition is the remainder of that division. For any modulus, n, the set of integers from 0 to n − 1 forms a group under modular addition: the inverse of any element a is n − a, and 0 is the identity element. This is familiar from the addition of hours on the face of a clock: if the hour hand is on 9 and is advanced 4 hours, it ends up on 1, as shown at the right. This is expressed by saying that 9 + 4 equals 1 "modulo 12" or, in symbols,
- 9 + 4 ≡ 1 modulo 12.
The group of integers modulo n is written or .
For any prime number p, there is also the multiplicative group of integers modulo p.^{[10]} Its elements are the integers 1 to p − 1. The group operation is multiplication modulo p. That is, the usual product is divided by p and the remainder of this division is the result of modular multiplication. For example, if p = 5, there are four group elements 1, 2, 3, 4. In this group, 4 · 4 = 1, because the usual product 16 is equivalent to 1, which divided by 5 yields a remainder of 1. for 5 divides 16 − 1 = 15, denoted
- 16 ≡ 1 (mod 5).
The primality of p ensures that the product of two integers neither of which is divisible by p is not divisible by p either, hence the indicated set of classes is closed under multiplication.^{o[›]} The identity element is 1, as usual for a multiplicative group, and the associativity follows from the corresponding property of integers. Finally, the inverse element axiom requires that given an integer a not divisible by p, there exists an integer b such that
- a · b ≡ 1 (mod p), i.e., p divides the difference a · b − 1.
The inverse b can be found by using Bézout's identity and the fact that the greatest common divisor gcd(a, p) equals 1.^{[11]} In the case p = 5 above, the inverse of 4 is 4, and the inverse of 3 is 2, as 3 · 2 = 6 ≡ 1 (mod 5). Hence all group axioms are fulfilled. Actually, this example is similar to above: it consists of exactly those elements in that have a multiplicative inverse.^{[12]} These groups are denoted F_{p}^{×}. They are crucial to public-key cryptography.^{p[›]}
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Cyclic groups
A cyclic group is a group all of whose elements are powers of a particular element a.^{[13]} In multiplicative notation, the elements of the group are:
- ..., a^{−3}, a^{−2}, a^{−1}, a^{0} = e, a, a^{2}, a^{3}, ...,
where a^{2} means a ⋅ a, and a^{−3} stands for a^{−1} ⋅ a^{−1} ⋅ a^{−1} = (a ⋅ a ⋅ a)^{−1} etc.^{h[›]} Such an element a is called a generator or a primitive element of the group. In additive notation, the requirement for an element to be primitive is that each element of the group can be written as
- ..., −a−a, −a, 0, a, a+a, ...
In the groups Z/nZ introduced above, the element 1 is primitive, so these groups are cyclic. Indeed, each element is expressible as a sum all of whose terms are 1. Any cyclic group with n elements is isomorphic to this group. A second example for cyclic groups is the group of n-th complex roots of unity, given by complex numbers z satisfying z^{n} = 1. These numbers can be visualized as the vertices on a regular n-gon, as shown in blue at the right for n = 6. The group operation is multiplication of complex numbers. In the picture, multiplying with z corresponds to a counter-clockwise rotation by 60°.^{[14]} Using some field theory, the group F_{p}^{×} can be shown to be cyclic: for example, if p = 5, 3 is a generator since 3^{1} = 3, 3^{2} = 9 ≡ 4, 3^{3} ≡ 2, and 3^{4} ≡ 1.
Some cyclic groups have an infinite number of elements. In these groups, for every non-zero element a, all the powers of a are distinct; despite the name "cyclic group", the powers of the elements do not cycle. An infinite cyclic group is isomorphic to (Z, +), the group of integers under addition introduced above.^{[15]} As these two prototypes are both abelian, so is any cyclic group.
The study of finitely generated abelian groups is quite mature, including the fundamental theorem of finitely generated abelian groups; and reflecting this state of affairs, many group-related notions, such as center and commutator, describe the extent to which a given group is not abelian.^{[16]}
مجموعات التناظر
Symmetry groups are groups consisting of symmetries of given mathematical objects—be they of geometric nature, such as the introductory symmetry group of the square, or of algebraic nature, such as polynomial equations and their solutions.^{[17]} Conceptually, group theory can be thought of as the study of symmetry.^{t[›]} Symmetries in mathematics greatly simplify the study of geometrical or analytical objects. A group is said to act on another mathematical object X if every group element performs some operation on X compatibly to the group law. In the rightmost example below, an element of order 7 of the (2,3,7) triangle group acts on the tiling by permuting the highlighted warped triangles (and the other ones, too). By a group action, the group pattern is connected to the structure of the object being acted on.
In chemical fields, such as crystallography, space groups and point groups describe molecular symmetries and crystal symmetries. These symmetries underlie the chemical and physical behavior of these systems, and group theory enables simplification of quantum mechanical analysis of these properties.^{[18]} For example, group theory is used to show that optical transitions between certain quantum levels cannot occur simply because of the symmetry of the states involved.
Not only are groups useful to assess the implications of symmetries in molecules, but surprisingly they also predict that molecules sometimes can change symmetry. The Jahn-Teller effect is a distortion of a molecule of high symmetry when it adopts a particular ground state of lower symmetry from a set of possible ground states that are related to each other by the symmetry operations of the molecule.^{[19]}^{[20]}
Likewise, group theory helps predict the changes in physical properties that occur when a material undergoes a phase transition, for example, from a cubic to a tetrahedral crystalline form. An example is ferroelectric materials, where the change from a paraelectric to a ferroelectric state occurs at the Curie temperature and is related to a change from the high-symmetry paraelectric state to the lower symmetry ferroelectric state, accompanied by a so-called soft phonon mode, a vibrational lattice mode that goes to zero frequency at the transition.^{[21]}
Such spontaneous symmetry breaking has found further application in elementary particle physics, where its occurrence is related to the appearance of Goldstone bosons.
Buckminsterfullerene displays icosahedral symmetry, though the double bonds reduce this to pyritohedral symmetry. |
Ammonia, NH_{3}. Its symmetry group is of order 6, generated by a 120° rotation and a reflection. | Cubane C_{8}H_{8} features octahedral symmetry. |
Hexaaquacopper(II) complex ion, [Cu(OH_{2})_{6}]^{2+}. Compared to a perfectly symmetrical shape, the molecule is vertically dilated by about 22% (Jahn-Teller effect). | The (2,3,7) triangle group, a hyperbolic group, acts on this tiling of the hyperbolic plane. |
Finite symmetry groups such as the Mathieu groups are used in coding theory, which is in turn applied in error correction of transmitted data, and in CD players.^{[22]} Another application is differential Galois theory, which characterizes functions having antiderivatives of a prescribed form, giving group-theoretic criteria for when solutions of certain differential equations are well-behaved.^{u[›]} Geometric properties that remain stable under group actions are investigated in (geometric) invariant theory.^{[23]}
General linear group and representation theory
Matrix groups consist of matrices together with matrix multiplication. The general linear group GL(n, R) consists of all invertible n-by-n matrices with real entries.^{[24]} Its subgroups are referred to as matrix groups or linear groups. The dihedral group example mentioned above can be viewed as a (very small) matrix group. Another important matrix group is the special orthogonal group SO(n). It describes all possible rotations in n dimensions. Via Euler angles, rotation matrices are used in computer graphics.^{[25]}
Generalizations
بنى شبيهة الزمرة | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|
Totality^{[1]} | Associativity | حيادي | Divisibility | Commutativity | |
Semicategory | غير مطلوب | مطلوب | غير مطلوب | غير مطلوب | غير مطلوب |
Category | غير مطلوب | مطلوب | مطلوب | غير مطلوب | غير مطلوب |
Groupoid | غير مطلوب | مطلوب | مطلوب | مطلوب | غير مطلوب |
Magma | مطلوب | غير مطلوب | غير مطلوب | غير مطلوب | غير مطلوب |
Quasigroup | مطلوب | غير مطلوب | غير مطلوب | مطلوب | غير مطلوب |
Loop | مطلوب | غير مطلوب | مطلوب | مطلوب | غير مطلوب |
شبه زمرة | مطلوب | مطلوب | غير مطلوب | غير مطلوب | غير مطلوب |
مونويد | مطلوب | مطلوب | مطلوب | غير مطلوب | غير مطلوب |
زمرة | مطلوب | مطلوب | مطلوب | مطلوب | غير مطلوب |
زمرة أبيلية | مطلوب | مطلوب | مطلوب | مطلوب | مطلوب |
^α Closure, which is used in many sources, is an equivalent axiom to totality, though defined differently. |
In abstract algebra, more general structures are defined by relaxing some of the axioms defining a group.^{[26]}^{[27]}^{[28]} For example, if the requirement that every element has an inverse is eliminated, the resulting algebraic structure is called a monoid. The natural numbers N (including 0) under addition form a monoid, as do the nonzero integers under multiplication (Z ∖ {0}, ·), see above. There is a general method to formally add inverses to elements to any (abelian) monoid, much the same way as (Q ∖ {0}, ·) is derived from (Z ∖ {0}, ·), known as the Grothendieck group. Groupoids are similar to groups except that the composition a ⋅ b need not be defined for all a and b. They arise in the study of more complicated forms of symmetry, often in topological and analytical structures, such as the fundamental groupoid or stacks. Finally, it is possible to generalize any of these concepts by replacing the binary operation with an arbitrary n-ary one (i.e., an operation taking n arguments). With the proper generalization of the group axioms this gives rise to an n-ary group.^{[29]} The table gives a list of several structures generalizing groups.
See also
Notes
^ a: Mathematical Reviews lists 3,224 research papers on group theory and its generalizations written in 2005.
^ aa: The classification was announced in 1983, but gaps were found in the proof. See classification of finite simple groups for further information.
^ b: The closure axiom is already implied by the condition that ⋅ be a binary operation. Some authors therefore omit this axiom. However, group constructions often start with an operation defined on a superset, so a closure step is common in proofs that a system is a group. Lang 2002
^ c: See, for example, the books of Lang (2002, 2005) and Herstein (1996, 1975).
^ d: However, a group is not determined by its lattice of subgroups. See Suzuki 1951.
^ e: The fact that the group operation extends this canonically is an instance of a universal property.
^ f: For example, if G is finite, then the size of any subgroup and any quotient group divides the size of G, according to Lagrange's theorem.
^ g: The word homomorphism derives from Greek ὁμός—the same and μορφή—structure.
^ h: The additive notation for elements of a cyclic group would be t ⋅ a, t in Z.
^ i: See the Seifert–van Kampen theorem for an example.
^ j: An example is group cohomology of a group which equals the singular cohomology of its classifying space.
^ k: Elements which do have multiplicative inverses are called units, see Lang 2002, §II.1, p. 84.
^ l: The transition from the integers to the rationals by adding fractions is generalized by the field of fractions.
^ m: The same is true for any field F instead of Q. See Lang 2005, §III.1, p. 86.
^ n: For example, a finite subgroup of the multiplicative group of a field is necessarily cyclic. See Lang 2002, Theorem IV.1.9. The notions of torsion of a module and simple algebras are other instances of this principle.
^ o: The stated property is a possible definition of prime numbers. See prime element.
^ p: For example, the Diffie-Hellman protocol uses the discrete logarithm.
^ q: The groups of order at most 2000 are known. Up to isomorphism, there are about 49 billion. See Besche, Eick & O'Brien 2001.
^ r: The gap between the classification of simple groups and the one of all groups lies in the extension problem, a problem too hard to be solved in general. See Aschbacher 2004, p. 737.
^ s: Equivalently, a nontrivial group is simple if its only quotient groups are the trivial group and the group itself. See Michler 2006, Carter 1989.
^ t: More rigorously, every group is the symmetry group of some graph; see Frucht's theorem, Frucht 1939.
^ u: More precisely, the monodromy action on the vector space of solutions of the differential equations is considered. See Kuga 1993, pp. 105–113.
^ v: See Schwarzschild metric for an example where symmetry greatly reduces the complexity of physical systems.
^ w: This was crucial to the classification of finite simple groups, for example. See Aschbacher 2004.
^ x: See, for example, Schur's Lemma for the impact of a group action on simple modules. A more involved example is the action of an absolute Galois group on étale cohomology.
^ y: Injective and surjective maps correspond to mono- and epimorphisms, respectively. They are interchanged when passing to the dual category.
Citations
- ^ Lang 2005, App. 2, p. 360
- ^ Cook, Mariana R. (2009), Mathematicians: An Outer View of the Inner World, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, p. 24, ISBN 9780691139517, https://books.google.com/books?id=06h8NT77OgMC&vq=Richard%20Ewen%20Borcherds&pg=PA24#v=onepage&q=Richard%20Ewen%20Borcherds&f=false
- ^ Herstein 1975, §2.1, p. 27
- ^ Eric W. Weisstein, Identity Element at MathWorld.
- ^ Herstein 1975, §2.6, p. 54
- ^ Hatcher 2002, Chapter I, p. 30
- ^ Coornaert, Delzant & Papadopoulos 1990
- ^ for example, class groups and Picard groups; see Neukirch 1999, in particular §§I.12 and I.13
- ^ Seress 1997
- ^ Lang 2005, Chapter VII
- ^ Rosen 2000, p. 54 (Theorem 2.1)
- ^ Lang 2005, §VIII.1, p. 292
- ^ Lang 2005, §II.1, p. 22
- ^ Lang 2005, §II.2, p. 26
- ^ Lang 2005, §II.1, p. 22 (example 11)
- ^ Lang 2002, §I.5, p. 26, 29
- ^ Weyl 1952
- ^ Conway, Delgado Friedrichs & Huson et al. 2001. See also Bishop 1993
- ^ Bersuker, Isaac (2006), The Jahn-Teller Effect, Cambridge University Press, p. 2, ISBN 0-521-82212-2, https://archive.org/details/jahntellereffect0000bers/page/2
- ^ Jahn & Teller 1937
- ^ Dove, Martin T (2003), Structure and Dynamics: an atomic view of materials, Oxford University Press, p. 265, ISBN 0-19-850678-3
- ^ Welsh 1989
- ^ Mumford, Fogarty & Kirwan 1994
- ^ Lay 2003
- ^ Kuipers 1999
- ^ Mac Lane 1998
- ^ Denecke & Wismath 2002
- ^ Romanowska & Smith 2002
- ^ Dudek 2001
References
General references
- Artin, Michael (1991), Algebra, Prentice Hall, ISBN 978-0-89871-510-1, Chapter 2 contains an undergraduate-level exposition of the notions covered in this article.
- Devlin, Keith (2000), The Language of Mathematics: Making the Invisible Visible, Owl Books, ISBN 978-0-8050-7254-9, Chapter 5 provides a layman-accessible explanation of groups.
- Hall, G. G. (1967), Applied group theory, American Elsevier Publishing Co., Inc., New York, an elementary introduction.
- Herstein, Israel Nathan (1996), Abstract algebra (3rd ed.), Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall Inc., ISBN 978-0-13-374562-7.
- Herstein, Israel Nathan (1975), Topics in algebra (2nd ed.), Lexington, Mass.: Xerox College Publishing.
- قالب:Lang Algebra
- Lang, Serge (2005), Undergraduate Algebra (3rd ed.), Berlin, New York: Springer-Verlag, ISBN 978-0-387-22025-3.
- Ledermann, Walter (1953), Introduction to the theory of finite groups, Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh and London.
- Ledermann, Walter (1973), Introduction to group theory, New York: Barnes and Noble, OCLC 795613.
- Robinson, Derek John Scott (1996), A course in the theory of groups, Berlin, New York: Springer-Verlag, ISBN 978-0-387-94461-6.
Special references
- Artin, Emil (1998), Galois Theory, New York: Dover Publications, ISBN 978-0-486-62342-9.
- Aschbacher, Michael (2004), "The Status of the Classification of the Finite Simple Groups" (PDF), Notices of the American Mathematical Society 51 (7): 736–740, http://www.ams.org/notices/200407/fea-aschbacher.pdf.
- Becchi, C. (1997), Introduction to Gauge Theories, p. 5211, Bibcode: 1997hep.ph....5211B.
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- Bishop, David H. L. (1993), Group theory and chemistry, New York: Dover Publications, ISBN 978-0-486-67355-4.
- Borel, Armand (1991), Linear algebraic groups, Graduate Texts in Mathematics, 126 (2nd ed.), Berlin, New York: Springer-Verlag, ISBN 978-0-387-97370-8.
- Carter, Roger W. (1989), Simple groups of Lie type, New York: John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 978-0-471-50683-6.
- Conway, John Horton; Delgado Friedrichs, Olaf; Huson, Daniel H.; Thurston, William P. (2001), "On three-dimensional space groups", Beiträge zur Algebra und Geometrie 42 (2): 475–507.
- Coornaert, M.; Delzant, T.; Papadopoulos, A. (1990) (in fr), Géométrie et théorie des groupes [Geometry and Group Theory], Lecture Notes in Mathematics, 1441, Berlin, New York: Springer-Verlag, ISBN 978-3-540-52977-4.
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- Dudek, W.A. (2001), "On some old problems in n-ary groups", Quasigroups and Related Systems 8: 15–36.
- Frucht, R. (1939), "Herstellung von Graphen mit vorgegebener abstrakter Gruppe [Construction of Graphs with Prescribed Group]" (in de), Compositio Mathematica 6: 239–50, Archived from the original on 2008-12-01, https://web.archive.org/web/20081201083831/http://www.numdam.org/numdam-bin/fitem?id=CM_1939__6__239_0.
- Fulton, William; Harris, Joe (1991), Representation theory. A first course, Graduate Texts in Mathematics, Readings in Mathematics, 129, New York: Springer-Verlag, ISBN 978-0-387-97495-8
- Goldstein, Herbert (1980), Classical Mechanics (2nd ed.), Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing, pp. 588–596, ISBN 0-201-02918-9.
- Hatcher, Allen (2002), Algebraic topology, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-79540-1, http://www.math.cornell.edu/~hatcher/AT/ATpage.html.
- Husain, Taqdir (1966), Introduction to Topological Groups, Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company, ISBN 978-0-89874-193-3
- Jahn, H.; Teller, E. (1937), "Stability of Polyatomic Molecules in Degenerate Electronic States. I. Orbital Degeneracy", Proceedings of the Royal Society A 161 (905): 220–235, doi: , Bibcode: 1937RSPSA.161..220J.
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- Kurzweil, Hans; Stellmacher, Bernd (2004), The theory of finite groups, Universitext, Berlin, New York: Springer-Verlag, ISBN 978-0-387-40510-0.
- Lay, David (2003), Linear Algebra and Its Applications, Addison-Wesley, ISBN 978-0-201-70970-4.
- Mac Lane, Saunders (1998), Categories for the Working Mathematician (2nd ed.), Berlin, New York: Springer-Verlag, ISBN 978-0-387-98403-2.
- Michler, Gerhard (2006), Theory of finite simple groups, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-86625-5.
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- Mumford, David; Fogarty, J.; Kirwan, F. (1994), Geometric invariant theory, 34 (3rd ed.), Berlin, New York: Springer-Verlag, ISBN 978-3-540-56963-3.
- Naber, Gregory L. (2003), The geometry of Minkowski spacetime, New York: Dover Publications, ISBN 978-0-486-43235-9.
- Neukirch, Jürgen (1999), Algebraic Number Theory, Grundlehren der mathematischen Wissenschaften , 322, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, ISBN 978-3-540-65399-8
- Romanowska, A.B.; Smith, J.D.H. (2002), Modes, World Scientific, ISBN 978-981-02-4942-7.
- Ronan, Mark (2007), Symmetry and the Monster: The Story of One of the Greatest Quests of Mathematics, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-280723-6.
- Rosen, Kenneth H. (2000), Elementary number theory and its applications (4th ed.), Addison-Wesley, ISBN 978-0-201-87073-2.
- Rudin, Walter (1990), Fourier Analysis on Groups, Wiley Classics, Wiley-Blackwell, ISBN 0-471-52364-X.
- Seress, Ákos (1997), "An introduction to computational group theory", Notices of the American Mathematical Society 44 (6): 671–679, http://www.ams.org/notices/199706/seress.pdf.
- Serre, Jean-Pierre (1977), Linear representations of finite groups, Berlin, New York: Springer-Verlag, ISBN 978-0-387-90190-9, https://archive.org/details/linearrepresenta1977serr.
- Shatz, Stephen S. (1972), Profinite groups, arithmetic, and geometry, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-08017-8
- Suzuki, Michio (1951), "On the lattice of subgroups of finite groups", Transactions of the American Mathematical Society 70 (2): 345–371, doi:.
- Warner, Frank (1983), Foundations of Differentiable Manifolds and Lie Groups, Berlin, New York: Springer-Verlag, ISBN 978-0-387-90894-6.
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- Welsh, Dominic (1989), Codes and cryptography, Oxford: Clarendon Press, ISBN 978-0-19-853287-3.
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Historical references
- Borel, Armand (2001), Essays in the History of Lie Groups and Algebraic Groups, Providence, R.I.: American Mathematical Society, ISBN 978-0-8218-0288-5
- Cayley, Arthur (1889), The collected mathematical papers of Arthur Cayley, II (1851–1860), Cambridge University Press, http://www.hti.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=umhistmath;cc=umhistmath;rgn=full%20text;idno=ABS3153.0001.001;didno=ABS3153.0001.001;view=image;seq=00000140.
- O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "The development of group theory", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews.
- Curtis, Charles W. (2003), Pioneers of Representation Theory: Frobenius, Burnside, Schur, and Brauer, History of Mathematics, Providence, R.I.: American Mathematical Society, ISBN 978-0-8218-2677-5.
- von Dyck, Walther (1882), "Gruppentheoretische Studien (Group-theoretical Studies)" (in de), Mathematische Annalen 20 (1): 1–44, doi: , Archived from the original on 2014-02-22, https://web.archive.org/web/20140222213905/http://gdz.sub.uni-goettingen.de/index.php?id=11&PPN=PPN235181684_0020&DMDID=DMDLOG_0007&L=1.
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- Jordan, Camille (1870) (in fr), Traité des substitutions et des équations algébriques [Study of Substitutions and Algebraic Equations], Paris: Gauthier-Villars, https://archive.org/details/traitdessubstit00jordgoog.
- Kleiner, Israel (1986), "The Evolution of Group Theory: A Brief Survey", Mathematics Magazine 59 (4): 195–215, doi:.
- Lie, Sophus (1973) (in de), Gesammelte Abhandlungen. Band 1 [Collected papers. Volume 1], New York: Johnson Reprint Corp..
- Mackey, George Whitelaw (1976), The theory of unitary group representations, University of Chicago Press
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- Wussing, Hans (2007), The Genesis of the Abstract Group Concept: A Contribution to the History of the Origin of Abstract Group Theory, New York: Dover Publications, ISBN 978-0-486-45868-7.