مجلس السوڤيت الأعلى

مجلس السوڤيت الأعلى (بالروسية: Верховный Совет؛ Verkhovny Sovet؛ بالإنگليزية: Supreme Soviet؛ بالإنگليزية: literally "المجلس الأعلى") was the common name for the legislative bodies (parliaments) of the Soviet socialist republics (SSR) in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). These soviets were modeled after the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, established in 1938, and were nearly identical.[1] Soviet-approved delegates to the Supreme Soviets were periodically elected in unopposed elections.[2] The first free or semi-free elections took place during perestroika in late 1980s. The soviets until then were largely rubber-stamp institutions, approving decisions handed to them by the Communist Party of the USSR or of each SSR.[2] The soviets met infrequently (often only twice a year for only several days) and elected the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, a permanent body, to act on their behalf while the soviet was not in session.[3] Under the 1936 and 1977 Soviet Constitutions the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet served as the collective head of state of the USSR.[4] The Supreme Soviets also elected the Council of Ministers, an executive body. After the dissolution of the USSR in late December 1991, most of these soviets became the legislatures of independent countries.

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مجالس السوڤيت العليا للجمهوريات السوڤيتية

  Soviet Republics dissolved before the dissolution of the Soviet Union

الجمهورية السوڤيتية السوڤيت الأعلى تأسس انحل خلفه
    أرمنيا الاشتراكية Supreme Soviet of the Armenian SSR

Հայկական ՍՍՀ Գերագույն Խորհուրդ

1938 1995   National Assembly
    أذربيجان Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijan SSR

Азәрбаjҹан ССР Али Совети

1938 1995   National Assembly
    بلاروس الاشتراكية السوڤيتية Supreme Soviet of the Byelorussian SSR

Вярхоўны Савет Беларускай ССР

1938 1991    National Assembly
    إستونيا الاشتراكية السوڤيتية Supreme Soviet of the Estonian SSR

Eesti NSV Ülemnõukogu

1940 1992   Riigikogu
    جورجيا الاشتراكية السوڤيتية Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR

საქართველოს სსრ უმაღლესი საბჭო

1938 1992    البرلمان
  قالب:Country data Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic Supreme Soviet of the Karelo-Finnish SSR

Верховный Совет Карело-Финской ССР

1940 1956   المجلس التشريعي
  قالب:Country data Kazakh SSR Supreme Soviet of the Kazakh SSR

Қазақ КСР-нiң Жоғарғы Кеңесi

1937 1995   Parliament
  قالب:Country data Kirghiz SSR Supreme Soviet of the Kirghiz SSR

Кыргыз ССР Жогорку Совети

1938 1993   المجلس الأعلى
    لاتڤيا الاشتراكية Supreme Soviet of the Latvian SSR

Latvijas PSR Augstākā Padome

1940 1990   Saeima
    لتوانيا الاشتراكية Supreme Soviet of the Lithuanian SSR

Lietuvos TSR Aukščiausioji Taryba

1940 1990   Seimas
    مولدوڤا الاشتراكية Supreme Soviet of the Moldavian SSR

Совиетул Супрем ал РСС Молдовеняскэ

1941 1991   البرلمان
    روسيا الاشتراكية الاتحادية السوڤيتية Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR

Верховный Совет РСФСР

1938 1993    Federal Assembly
    طاجيكستان Supreme Soviet of the Tajik SSR

Совети Олӣ РСС Тоҷикистон

1937 1994   المجلس الأعلى
    تركمنستان Supreme Soviet of the Turkmen SSR

Түркменистан ССР Ёкары Советы

1938 1992   المجلس
    جمهورية اوكرانيا الإشتراكية السوڤيتية Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR

Верховна Рада Української РСР

1937 1991   ڤرخوڤنا رادا
  قالب:Country data Uzbek SSR Supreme Soviet of the Uzbek SSR

Ўзбекистон ССР Олий Совети

1938 1991   المجلس الأعلى


Supreme Soviets of the Autonomous Soviet Republics

Soviet Republic Supreme Soviet Established Disbanded
  Bashkir ASSR Supreme Soviet of the Bashkir ASSR

БАССР Юғары Советы

1938 1993
  Tatar ASSR Supreme Soviet of the Tatar ASSR

ТАССР Югары Советы

1938 1990
  Tuvan ASSR Supreme Soviet of the Tuvan ASSR

Тыва АССР-ниң Дээди Соведи

1961 1993

الهامش

  1. ^ Where nation-states come from: institutional change in the age of nationalism by Philip G. Roeder, p. 70
  2. ^ أ ب Perestroika-era politics: the new Soviet legislature and Gorbachev's political reforms by Robert T. Huber and Donald R. Kelley, p. 52
  3. ^ Russian law: the end of the Soviet system and the role of law by Ferdinand Joseph Maria Feldbrugge, p. 192
  4. ^ Armstrong, John Alexander (January 1, 1978). Ideology, Politics, and Government in the Soviet Union: An Introduction– Google Knihy. ISBN 9780819154057. Retrieved 2016-11-26.