فاماگوستا

فاماگوستا Famagusta (باليونانية: Αμμόχωστος Ammóchōstos، تركية: Gazimağusa/Mağusa)، هي مدينة على الساحل الشرقي لجزيرة قبرص وعاصمة منطقة فاماگوستا. وتطل المدينة على ساحل البحر المتوسط.

فاماگوستا

Αμμόχωστος (باليونانية)
Gazimağusa/Mağusa (بالتركية)

Famagusta
مسجد لالا مصطفى پاشا
فاماگوستا is located in قبرص
فاماگوستا
فاماگوستا
الإحداثيات: 35°07′30″N 33°56′30″E / 35.12500°N 33.94167°E / 35.12500; 33.94167Coordinates: 35°07′30″N 33°56′30″E / 35.12500°N 33.94167°E / 35.12500; 33.94167
البلدشرعياً  قبرص
أمر واقع:  قبرص الشمالية
المنطقةشرعياً: منطقة فاماگوستا
أمر واقع: منطقة غازي‌ماغوسا
التعداد
 (30 أبريل 2006 SPO census [1])
 • الإجمالي42٬526
منطقة التوقيتUTC+2 (EET)


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التاريخ

The city was founded around 274 BC, after the serious damage to Salamis by an earthquake, by Ptolemy II Philadelphus and named "Arsinoe" after his sister.[2] Arsinoe was described as a "fishing town" by Strabo in his Geographica in the first century BC. It remained a small fishing village for a long time.[3] Later, as a result of the gradual evacuation of Salamis due to the Arab invasion led by Muawiyah I, it developed into a small port.


فاماگوستا القروسطية

 
مدخل Palazzo del Provveditore (القصر الملكي)، فاماگوستا.
 
Church of Sts. Peter and Paul (1359) was converted into a mosque in 1571 وتغير اسمها إلى مسجد سنان پاشا.

The turning point for Famagusta was 1192 with the onset of Lusignan rule. It was during this period that Famagusta developed as a fully-fledged town. It increased in importance to the Eastern Mediterranean due to its natural harbour and the walls that protected its inner town. Its population began to increase. This development accelerated in the 13th century as the town became a centre of commerce for both the East and West. An influx of Christian refugees fleeing the downfall of Acre (1291) in Palestine transformed it from a tiny village into one of the richest cities in Christendom.

في 1372 استولت جنوة على الميناء، وفي 1489 استولت عليه البندقية. This commercial activity turned Famagusta into a place where merchants and ship owners led lives of luxury. The belief that people's wealth could be measured by the churches they built inspired these merchants to have churches built in varying styles. These churches, which still exist, were the reason Famagusta came to be known as "the district of churches". The development of the town focused on the social lives of the wealthy people and was centred upon the Lusignan palace, the Cathedral, the Square and the harbour.

فاماگوستا العثمانية

 
The port of Famagusta, engraving from the book of Olfert Dapper "Description exact des iles des l'Archipel", Amsterdam, 1703.

In 1570–1571, Famagusta was the last stronghold in Venetian Cyprus to hold out against the Turks under Mustafa Pasha. It resisted a siege of thirteen months and a terrible bombardment, until at last the garrison surrendered. The Ottoman forces had lost 50,000 men, including Mustafa Pasha's son. Although the surrender terms had stipulated that the Venetian forces be allowed to return home, the Venetian commander, Marco Antonio Bragadin, was flayed alive, his lieutenant Tiepolo was hanged, and many other Christians were killed.[4]

 
أسوار قلعة فاماگوستا.
 
برج عطيل في فاماگوستا.
 
مدخل Palazzo del Provedittore (القصر الملكي) ، فاماگوستا.
 
ڤاروشا كما تبدو من فندق پالم بيتش [صورة: RP 2005].
 
منطقة ڤاروشا في 2006


الاقتصاد

 
ميناء فاماگوستا

Famagusta is an important commercial hub of Northern Cyprus. The main economic activities in the city are tourism, education, construction and industrial production. It has a 115-acre free port, which is the most important seaport of Northern Cyprus for travel and commerce.[5][6] The port is an important source of income and employment for the city, though its volume of trade is restricted by the embargo against Northern Cyprus. Its historical sites, including the walled city, Salamis, the Othello Castle and the St Barnabas Church, as well as the sandy beaches surrounding it make it a tourist attraction; efforts are also underway to make the city more attractive for international congresses. The Eastern Mediterranean University is also an important employer and supplies significant income and activity, as well as opportunities for the construction sector. The university also raises a qualified workforce that stimulates the city's industry and makes communications industry viable. The city has two industrial zones: the Large Industrial Zone and the Little Industrial Zone. The city is also home to a fishing port, but inadequate infrastructure of the port restricts the growth of this sector.[5] The industry in the city has traditionally been concentrated on processing agricultural products.[7]

الثقافة

 
A street in the walled city of Famagusta

The walled city of Famagusta contains many unique buildings. Famagusta has a walled city popular with tourists.[8] Every year, the International Famagusta Art and Culture Festival is organized in Famagusta. Concerts, dance shows and theater plays take place during the festival.[9]

A growth in tourism and the city's university have fueled[10] the development of Famagusta's vibrant[11] nightlife. Nightlife in the city is especially active on Wednesday, Friday and Saturday nights and in the hotter months of the year, starting from April. Larger hotels in the city have casinos that cater to their customers.[12] Salamis Road is an area of Famagusta where bars frequented by students and locals are concentrated and is very vibrant, especially in the summer.[13]

Famagusta's Othello Castle is the setting for William Shakespeare's play Othello.[14] The city is also the setting for Victoria Hislop's 2015 novel The Sunrise,[15] and Michael Paraskos's 2016 novel In Search of Sixpence.[16] The city is the birthplace of the eponymous hero of the Renaissance proto-novel Fortunatus.

التعليم

 
مكتبة جامعة شرق المتوسط في فاماگوستا، 2007.

جامعة شرق المتوسط تأسست في المدينة في 1979.[17] The Istanbul Technical University founded a campus in the city in 2010.[18]

The Cyprus College of Art was founded in Famagusta by the Cypriot artist Stass Paraskos in 1969, before moving to Paphos in 1972 after protests from local hoteliers that the presence of art students in the city was putting off holidaymakers.[19]

مشاهير المدينة

 
فاماگوستا في 2002. الأوناش ما زالت في نفس الأماكن منذ عام 1974.


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انظر أيضا

المصادر

مراجع
هوامش
  1. ^ Magusa.org, op.cit., "Table-1: Population of Famagusta", as of April 2006
  2. ^ "Brief History". Ammochostos Municipality. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  3. ^ Gürkan 2008, p. 16.
  4. ^ Kinross, Lord (2002). Ottoman Centuries. Harper Perennial. ISBN 978-0-688-08093-8.
  5. ^ أ ب Ülkesel Fizik Plan - Bölüm VI. Bölge Strateji ve Politikaları (in Turkish). TRNC Department of City Planning. 2012. pp. 9–29.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  6. ^ Guide to Foreign Investors (2004), TRNC State Planning Organization, p. 18-19.
  7. ^ Mor, Ahmet; Çitci, M. Dursun (2006). "KUZEY KIBRIS TÜRK CUMHURİYETİ'NDE EKONOMİK ETKİNLİKLER" (PDF). Fırat University Journal of Social Science (in Turkish). 16 (1): 33–61.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  8. ^ Tolgay, Ahmet. Sur içi sendromu: Bir Lefkoşa – Mağusa kıyaslaması... Archived 2012-11-30 at the Wayback Machine. (Kıbrıs)
  9. ^ International Famagusta Art & Culture Festival (Lonely Planet) Retrieved on 2015-08-31.
  10. ^ Scott, Julie (2000). Brown, Frances; Hall, Derek D.; Hall, Derek R. (eds.). Tourism in Peripheral Areas: Case Studies. Channel View Publications. p. 65.
  11. ^ "Mağusa geceleri capcanlı" (in Turkish). Kıbrıs. 3 May 2008. Retrieved 28 March 2016.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  12. ^ "Gece Hayatı" (in Turkish). Municipality of Famagusta. Retrieved 28 March 2016.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  13. ^ "Gazimağusa" (in Turkish). Gezimanya. Retrieved 28 March 2016.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  14. ^ "Shakespeare's 'Othello Tower,' victim of Cyprus's division, to reopen after facelift". Reuters. 17 June 2015. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
  15. ^ Victoria Hislop, The Sunrise (London: Headline Review 2015)
  16. ^ Michael Paraskos, In Search of Sixpence (London: Friction Fiction, 2016)
  17. ^ Eastern Mediterranean University Archived 2011-04-29 at the Wayback Machine.
  18. ^ "Köklü ve öncü bir üniversite". Kıbrıs. 9 January 2015. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
  19. ^ Michael Paraskos, 'A Voice in the Wilderness: Stass Paraskos and the Cyprus College of Art' in The Cyprus Dossier, no. 8 (2015)

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