المخطوطة السينائية

المخطوطة السينائية Codex Sinaiticus (علامات الرفوف والمراجع: لندن، المكتبة البريطانية، إضافي 43725; Gregory-Alandא [Aleph] or 01, [Soden δ 2]) هو أحد أهم النسخ القديمة المكتوبة بخط اليد للإنجيل اليوناني. وقد كـُتبت في القرن الرابع بحروف uncial . وقد لفتت أنظار الباحثين في القرن 19 في دير سانت كاترين اليوناني، وقد تم اكتشاف المزيد من تلك المخطوطات في القرن 20، ومعظمها يوجد اليوم في المكتبة البريطانية.[1] وفي الأصل، كانت تضم نسخة كاملة من العهدين القديم والجديد. وقد بقيت التوراة اليونانية (أو Septuagint) بشكل شبه كامل، وكذلك نسخة كاملة من العهد الجديد، بالإضافة إلى رسالة برنابا، وأجزاء من راعي هرماس.[1]

المخطوطات الإنجيلية
البردياتuncialsminusculeslectionaries
Uncial 01
كتاب إستر
NameSinaiticus
Signא
Textالتوراة و الإنجيل
Datec. 330-360
Scriptاليونانية
FoundSinai 1844
Now atالمكتبة البريطانية، جامعة لايپزيگ، دير سانت كاترين، المكتبة الوطنية الروسية
CiteLake, K. (1911).Codex Sinaiticus Petropolitanus, Oxford.
Size38 x 34 cm
TypeAlexandrian text-type
CategoryI
Notevery close to Papyrus 66

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الوصف

 
لوقا 11, 2 في المخطوطة السينائية

The work was written in scriptio continua with neither breathings nor polytonic accents. Occasional points and few ligatures are used, though nomina sacra with overlines are employed throughout. Some words usually abbreviated in other manuscripts (such as πατηρ and δαυειδ), are in this codex both written in full and abbreviated forms. Almost regularly, a plain iota is substituted for the epsilon-iota diphthong (error of iotacism), e.g. ΔΑΥΕΙΔ instead οf ΔΑΥΙΔ, ΠΕΙΛΑΤΟΣ instead of ΠΙΛΑΤΟΣ, ΦΑΡΕΙΣΑΙΟΙ instead of ΦΑΡΙΣΑΙΟΙ, ΣΑΔΔΟΥΚΑΙΕΟΙ instead of ΣΑΔΔΟΥΚΑΙΟΙ, etc.[2]

Each line has some twelve to fourteen Greek uncial letters, arranged in four columns (48 lines in column) with carefully-chosen line breaks and slightly ragged right edges.[3] In result the eight columns thus presented to the reader when the volume is opened have much of the appearance of the succession of columns in a papyrus roll.[4] The poetical books of the Old Testament written in στίχοι, only in two columns per page. There are no breathings or accents.[5] The codex has almost 4 000 000 uncial letters.[n 1]

Each rectangular page has the proportions 1.1 to 1, while the block of text has the reciprocal proportions, 0.91 (the same proportions, rotated 90°). If the gutters between the columns were removed, the text block would mirror the page's proportions. Typographer Robert Bringhurst referred to the codex as a "subtle piece of craftsmanship".[6]

The folios are made of vellum parchment made from donkey or antelope skin. Most of the quires or signatures contain four leaves save two containing five. It is estimated that about 360 animals were slaughtered for making the folios of this codex, assuming all animals yielded a good enough skin. As for the cost of the material, time of scribes and binding, it equals the life time wages of one individual at the time.[7]

The portion of the codex held by the British Library consists of 346½ folios, 694 pages (38.1 cm x 34.5 cm), constituting over half of the original work. Of these folios, 199 belong to the Old Testament including the apocrypha (deuterocanonical) and 147½ belong to the New Testament, along with two other books, the Epistle of Barnabas and part of The Shepherd of Hermas. The apocryphal books present in the surviving part of the Septuagint are 2 Esdras, Tobit, Judith, 1 & 4 Maccabees, Wisdom and Sirach.[7][8] The books of the New Testament are arranged in this order: the four Gospels, the epistles of Paul (Hebrews follows 2 Thess), the Acts of the Apostles,[n 2] the General Epistles, and the Book of Revelation. The fact that some parts of the codex are preserved in good condition, while others are in very poor condition, implies they were separated and stored in several places.[9]


قراءات مغلوطة ارثوذكسية

في 1 يوحنا 5:6 يوجد التحريف النصي δι' ὕδατος καὶ αἵματος καὶ πνεύματος (عبر الماء والدم والروح) ضمن المخطوطات: المخطوطة السكندرية، 104, 424c, 614, 1739c, 2412, 2495, 598m, syrh, قبطيةصعيدية, قبطيةبحرية، اوريجن.[10][n 3] بارت إرمان وصفها بأنها قراءة مغلوطة ارثوذكسية.[11]

Text-type and relationship to other manuscripts

 
جزء من المخطوطة السينائية، يضم كتاب إستر 2:3-8.

أمثلة للاختلافات بين المخطوطة السينائية والمخطوطة الڤاتيكانية في متا 1:18-19:

المخطوطة السينائي المخطوطة الڤاتيكانية
Του δε ΙΥ ΧΥ η γενεσις ουτως ην
μνηστευθισης της μητρος αυτου
Μαριας τω Ιωσηφ πριν ην συνελθιν αυτους
ευρεθη εν γαστρι εχουσα εκ ΠΝΣ αγιου
Ιωσηφ δε ο ανηρ αυτης δικαιος ων
και μη θελων αυτην παραδιγματισαι
εβουληθη λαθρα απολυσαι αυτην
Του δε ΧΥ ΙΥ η γενεσις ουτως ην
μνηστευθεισης της μητρος αυτου
Μαριας τω Ιωσηφ πριν ην συνελθειν αυτους
ευρεθη εν γαστρι εχουσα εκ ΠΝΣ αγιου
Ιωσηφ δε ο ανηρ αυτης δικαιος ων
και μη θελων αυτην δειγματισαι
εβουληθη λαθρα απολυσαι αυτην

تاريخ المخطوطة

التاريخ المبكر للمخطوطة

الاكتشاف

 
Constantin von Tischendorf in 1870
 
Lithography of the دير سانت كاترين based on sketches made by archimandrite Porphiryj Uspienski 1857)
 
The monastery of the St. Catherine; litography from the album of P. Uspensky

الموقع الحالي

 
المكتبة البريطانية

انظر أيضاً

الهامش

  1. ^ It was estimated by Tischendorf and used by Scrivener in his Introduction to the Sinaitic Codex (1867) as an argument against authorship of Simonides (‘‘Christianity’’, p. 1889.)
  2. ^ Also in Minuscule 69, Minuscule 336, and several other manuscripts Pauline epistles precede Acts.
  3. ^ ولمطالعة نص مختلف لهذا الإصحاح، انظر: Textual variants in the First Epistle of John.

المصادر

  1. ^ أ ب Aland, Kurt and Aland, Barbara (1995). The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism, transl. Erroll F. Rhodes, Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, p. 107-108.
  2. ^ Jongkind, Dirk (2007). Scribal Habits of Codex Sinaiticus, Gorgias Press LLC, p. 74 ff, 93-94.
  3. ^ K. Lake, (1911). Codex Sinaiticus Petropolitanus: The New Testament, the Epistle of Barnabas and the Shepherd of Hermas, Oxford: Clarendon Press, p. XVI.
  4. ^ Kenyon, F. G., (1939). Our Bible and the Ancient Manuscripts, (4th ed.), London, p. 191.
  5. ^ Scrivener F. H. A., (1864). A Full Collation of the Codex Sinaiticus with the Received Text of the New Testament, Cambridge: Deighton, Bell, and Co., p. XIII.
  6. ^ Bringhurst, Robert (2004). The Elements of Typographic Style (version 3.0), pp. 174–75. Vancouver: Hartley & Marks. ISBN 0-88179-205-5.
  7. ^ أ ب خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Bruce
  8. ^ The Codex Sinaiticus Website
  9. ^ Skeat, T. C. "The Last Chapter in the History of the Codex Sinaiticus", Novum Testamentum XLII, 4, pp. 313-315.
  10. ^ UBS3, p. 823.
  11. ^ Bart D. Ehrman, The Orthodox Corruption of Scripture, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1993, p. 60.

وصلات خارجية

صور المخطوطة السينائية

المقالات


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ببليوگرافيا

  • Jongkind, Dirk (2007). Scribal Habits of Codex Sinaiticus. Gorgias Press LLC.
  • Kenyon, Frederic G. (4th ed. 1939). Our Bible and the Ancient Manuscripts. London. Check date values in: |year= (help)
  • Lake, Kirsopp (1911). Codex Sinaiticus Petropolitanus: The New Testament, the Epistle of Barnabas and the Shepherd of Hermas. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Magerson, P. (1983). Codex Sinaiticus: An Historical Observation, Bib Arch, 46 (1983), pp. 54–56.
  • Metzger, Bruce M. (1991). Manuscripts of the Greek Bible: An Introduction to Palaeography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-502924-6.
  • Metzger, Bruce M. (2005). The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration (in (إنگليزية)). New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  • Milne, H. J. M. and Skeat, T. C., (1938). Scribes and Correctors of the Codex Sinaiticus, London: British Museum.
  • T. C. Skeat, A four years work on the Codex Sinaiticus: Significant discoveries in reconditioned ms., in: T. C. Skeat and J. K. Elliott, The collected biblical writings of T. C. Skeat, Brill 2004, pp. 109–118.
  • Schneider, Ulrich Johannes (ed.) (2007). Codex Sinaiticus. Geschichte und Erschließung der «Sinai-Bibel». Leipzig: Universitätsbibliothek Leipzig. ISBN 978-3-934178-72-4.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  • Scrivener, Frederick Henry Ambrose (1864; 2nd ed. 1867). A Full Collation of the Codex Sinaiticus with the Received Text of the New Testament. Cambridge: Deighton Bell. Check date values in: |year= (help); External link in |title= (help)
  • Streeter, Burnett Hillman (1924). The Four Gospels. A Study of Origins the Manuscripts Tradition, Sources, Authorship, & Dates. Oxford: MacMillan and Co Limited.
  • Tischendorf, Constantin von (1866). When Were Our Gospels Written?, An Argument by Constantine Tischendorf. With a Narrative of the Discovery of the Sinaitic Manuscript. New York: American Tract Society.