إغريق

(تم التحويل من الأغريق)

الإغريق هي كلمة أطلقها العرب علي سكان اليونان القدماء. وكان لهم حضاراتهم التي تعتبر أم الحضارات في أوربا كالحضارة الرومانية ولاسيما في الفنون والفلسفة والآداب ولاسيما في مدن أثينا وأسبرطة وطيبة اليونانية. وأصل حضارتهم قد ظهرت في جزيرة كريت وميسينيا من خلال الحضارتين المينوية والميسينية. ورغم أن الإغريق قد تبنوا فكرة الحرية والديموقراطية إلا أنهم لم يلغوا الرق ولم يحرروا العبيد. وكانوا محاربين مرتزقة في جيوش مصر والعراق وفارس لفقر بلادهم. وقد سكن الأراضي الإغريقية الآخيون والدريانيون والأيونيون (اليونانيون). وهؤلاء كانوا يختلفون في اللهجة والعادات. وكان يطلق عليهم البرابرة. وقد نقلوا الأبجدية من الفينيقيين وكانت سائدة بين الكنعانيين والسوريين. وكان الإغريق ينقسمون عشائريا لأربع قبائل هي الآخيون والأيونيون والدوريون والإينوليون. ويطلق خطأ كلمة هيلينيين على اليونانيين فقط. ولكن هذه الكلمة تطلق علي كل الشعوب التي خضعت لحكم الإغريق في اليونان وجزرها ومدن آسيا الصغرى وجنوه بإيطاليا وجزيرة صقلية. لأن كلمة هيلانس كان الإغريق يطلقونها علي كل البلدان التي كانوا يحتلونها ولاسيما بعد فتوحات الإسكندر الأكبر.

Greeks
Έλληνες
Greeks25-3.svg
الصف الأول: هومر • الملك ليونيداس • پريكليس • هيرودوت • Hippocrates
الصف الثاني: سقراط • أفلاطون • أرسطو • الِإسكندر الأكبر • أرخميدس
الصف الثالث: هيپاتيا • باسيل الثاني • ألكسيوس كومننوس • Gemistos Plethon • إل گريكو
الصف الرابع: Rigas Feraios • Theodoros Kolokotronis • Laskarina Bouboulina • Georgios Karaiskakis • Ioannis Kapodistrias •
الصف الخامس: إلفثريوس ڤنيزلوس • قسطنطين كڤافي • Georgios Papanikolaou • الأسقف مكاريوس • Pyrros Dimas
التعداد الإجمالي
تقريباً 14 - 17 مليون [1]
المناطق ذات التواجد المعتبر
Flag of اليونان اليونان10,280,000 (تعداد 2001)[2]
Flag of الولايات المتحدة الولايات المتحدة1,390,439[3]-3,000,000a (تقدير 2009)[4]
Flag of قبرص قبرص792,604 (تقدير يوليو 2008)[5]
Flag of المملكة المتحدة المملكة المتحدة400,000 (estimate)[6]
Flag of أستراليا أستراليا365,120[7] (2006 census)-700,000a[8]
Flag of ألمانيا ألمانيا294,891 (2007 est.)[9]
Flag of كندا كندا242,685b (2006 census)[10]
Flag of ألبانيا ألبانياapprox. 200,000[11]
Flag of روسيا روسيا100,000[12][13]
Flag of أوكرانيا أوكرانيا91,500 (2001 census)[14]
Flag of إيطاليا إيطاليا90,000c (estimate)[15][16][17]
Flag of جنوب أفريقيا جنوب أفريقيا55,000 (2008 estimate)[18]
Flag of البرازيل البرازيل50,000d[19]
Flag of فرنسا فرنسا35,000(2009 est.)[20]
Flag of الأرجنتين الأرجنتين30,000 (2008 estimate)[21]
Flag of بلجيكا بلجيكا15,742 (2007)[22]
Flag of السويد السويد12,000–15,000[23]
Flag of قزخستان قزخستان13,000 (est) [24]
Flag of سويسرا سويسرا11,000 estimated [25]
Flag of اوزبكستان اوزبكستان9,500 estimate[26]
Flag of رومانيا رومانيا6,500 2002 census [27]
Flag of أرمنيا أرمنيا6,000[28]
Flag of تركيا تركيا2,500[28]
Flag of سوريا سوريا1,500[29]
Flag of تشيلي تشيلي1,500[30]
اللغات
Greek
الديانة
Greek Orthodox Christian, Hellenic polytheism
الجماعات العرقية ذات الصلة
Greek Cypriots, Pontic Greeks, Griko people

a Higher figure includes those of ancestral descent.
b Those whose stated ethnic origins included "Greek" among others. The number of those whose stated ethnic origin is solely "Greek" is 145,250. An additional 3,395 Cypriots of undeclared ethnicity live in Canada.
bApprox. 60,000 Griko people and 30,000 post WW2 migrants.
d "Including descendants".

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

التاريخ

 
Proto-Greek area of settlement (2200/2100-1900 B.C.) suggested by Katona (2000), Sakelariou (2016, 1980, 1975) and Phylaktopoulos (1975)

The Greeks speak the Greek language, which forms its own unique branch within the Indo-European family of languages, the Hellenic.[31] They are part of a group of classical ethnicities, described by Anthony D. Smith as an "archetypal diaspora people".[32][33]


الأصول

The Proto-Greeks probably arrived at the area now called Greece, in the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula, at the end of the 3rd millennium BC between 2200 and 1900 BC.[34][35][أ] The sequence of migrations into the Greek mainland during the 2nd millennium BC has to be reconstructed on the basis of the ancient Greek dialects, as they presented themselves centuries later and are therefore subject to some uncertainties. There were at least two migrations, the first being the Ionians and Achaeans, which resulted in Mycenaean Greece by the 16th century BC,[39][40] and the second, the Dorian invasion, around the 11th century BC, displacing the Arcadocypriot dialects, which descended from the Mycenaean period. Both migrations occur at incisive periods, the Mycenaean at the transition to the Late Bronze Age and the Doric at the Bronze Age collapse.

الموكنية

In ح. 1600 BC, the Mycenaean Greeks borrowed from the Minoan civilization its syllabic writing system (Linear A) and developed their own syllabic script known as Linear B,[41] providing the first and oldest written evidence of Greek.[41][42] The Mycenaeans quickly penetrated the Aegean Sea and, by the 15th century BC, had reached Rhodes, Crete, Cyprus and the shores of Asia Minor.[31][43]

اللغة

 
Early Greek alphabet, c. 8th century BC
A Greek speaker

Most Greeks speak the Greek language, an independent branch of the Indo-European languages, with its closest relations possibly being Armenian (see Graeco-Armenian) or the Indo-Iranian languages (see Graeco-Aryan).[44] It has the longest documented history of any living language and Greek literature has a continuous history of over 2,500 years.[45] The oldest inscriptions in Greek are in the Linear B script, dated as far back as 1450 BC.[46] Following the Greek Dark Ages, from which written records are absent, the Greek alphabet appears in the 9th–8th century BC. The Greek alphabet derived from the Phoenician alphabet, and in turn became the parent alphabet of the Latin, Cyrillic, and several other alphabets. The earliest Greek literary works are the Homeric epics, variously dated from the 8th to the 6th century BC. Notable scientific and mathematical works include Euclid's Elements, Ptolemy's Almagest, and others. The New Testament was originally written in Koine Greek.

Greek demonstrates several linguistic features that are shared with other Balkan languages, such as Albanian, Bulgarian and Eastern Romance languages (see Balkan sprachbund), and has absorbed many foreign words, primarily of Western European and Turkish origin.[47] Because of the movements of Philhellenism and the Diafotismos in the 19th century, which emphasized the modern Greeks' ancient heritage, these foreign influences were excluded from official use via the creation of Katharevousa, a somewhat artificial form of Greek purged of all foreign influence and words, as the official language of the Greek state. In 1976, however, the Hellenic Parliament voted to make the spoken Dimotiki the official language, making Katharevousa obsolete.[48]

Modern Greek has, in addition to Standard Modern Greek or Dimotiki, a wide variety of dialects of varying levels of mutual intelligibility, including Cypriot, Pontic, Cappadocian, Griko and Tsakonian (the only surviving representative of ancient Doric Greek).[49] Yevanic is the language of the Romaniotes, and survives in small communities in Greece, New York and Israel. In addition to Greek, many Greek citizens in Greece and the diaspora are bilingual in other languages such as English, Arvanitika/Albanian, Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian, Macedonian Slavic, Russian and Turkish.[44][50]

الدين

Most Greeks are Christians, belonging to the Greek Orthodox Church.[51] During the first centuries after Jesus Christ, the New Testament was originally written in Koine Greek, which remains the liturgical language of the Greek Orthodox Church, and most of the early Christians and Church Fathers were Greek-speaking.[52] There are small groups of ethnic Greeks adhering to other Christian denominations like Greek Catholics, Greek Evangelicals, Pentecostals, and groups adhering to other religions including Romaniot and Sephardic Jews and Greek Muslims. About 2,000 Greeks are members of Hellenic Polytheistic Reconstructionism congregations.[53][54][55]

Greek-speaking Muslims live mainly outside Greece in the contemporary era. There are both Christian and Muslim Greek-speaking communities in Lebanon and Syria, while in the Pontus region of Turkey there is a large community of indeterminate size who were spared from the population exchange because of their religious affiliation.[56]

الفنون

 
Renowned Greek soprano ماريا كالاس


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

العلوم

 
Aristarchus of Samos was the first known individual to propose a heliocentric system, in the 3rd century BC


الرموز

 
The national flag of Greece is commonly used as a symbol for Greeks worldwide
 
The flag of the Greek Orthodox Church is based on the coat of arms of the Palaiologoi, the last dynasty of the Byzantine Empire.


المظهر الخارجي

Greek warriors, details from painted sarcophagus found in Italy, 350-325 BC

خط زمني

The history of the Greek people is closely associated with the history of Greece, Cyprus, Southern Italy, Constantinople, Asia Minor and the Black Sea. During the Ottoman rule of Greece, a number of Greek enclaves around the Mediterranean were cut off from the core, notably in Southern Italy, the Caucasus, Syria and Egypt. By the early 20th century, over half of the overall Greek-speaking population was settled in Asia Minor (now Turkey), while later that century a huge wave of migration to the United States, Australia, Canada and elsewhere created the modern Greek diaspora.

انظر أيضاً

ملاحظات

  1. ^ There is a range of interpretations: Carl Blegen dates the arrival of the Greeks around 1900 BC, John Caskey believes that there were two waves of immigrants and Robert Drews places the event as late as 1600 BC.[36][37] Numerous other theories have also been supported,[38] but there is a general consensus that the Greek tribes arrived around 2100 BC.


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

الهامش

  1. ^ Immigration and asylum: from 1900 to the present, Volume 1.
  2. ^ www.eurfedling.org The main ethnic groups were Greeks 93.76%, Albanians 4.32%, بلغار 0.39%, Romanians 0.23%, Ukrainians 0.18%, Pakistani 0.14%، روس 0.12%، كرج 0.12%, Indians 0.09% وآخرون 0.65%.
  3. ^ Toal ancestry reported United States Census Bureau 2009.
  4. ^ "Greece (08/09)". وزارة الخارجية الأمريكية. August 2009. Retrieved 2009-11-01.
  5. ^ "2008 estimate". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2009-01-07.
  6. ^ Duff, Oliver (3 April 2008). "It's All Greek to Boris". The Independent. London. Retrieved 2009-10-01.
  7. ^ "2006 Census Table: Australia". www.censusdata.abs.gov.au. Retrieved 2008-12-24.
  8. ^ "General Diaspora Information". Hellenic Ministry of Foreign Affairs, General Secretary for Greeks Abroad. Archived from the original on 2004-10-12. Retrieved 2004. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  9. ^ "Foreign Population". Federal Statistical Office of Germany. Retrieved 2009-01-18.
  10. ^ "Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2008-04-13.
  11. ^ ''Eastern Europe at the end of the 20th century'', Ian Jeffries, p. 69. Books.google.com. 1993-06-25. ISBN 9780415236713. Retrieved 2010-08-27.
  12. ^ Ethnic groups in Russia, 2002 census, Demoscope Weekly. Retrieved 5 February 2009
  13. ^ Russia population census 2002, Vol. 4, Table 1. Retrieved 5 February 2009
  14. ^ "2001 census". State Statistics Committee of Ukraine. Retrieved 2008-04-13.
  15. ^ "Grecia Salentina official site (in Italian)". www.greciasalentina.org.org. Retrieved 2011-February. La popolazione complessiva dell’Unione è di 54278 residenti così distribuiti (Dati Istat al 31° dicembre 2005. Comune Popolazione Calimera 7351 Carpignano Salentino 3868 Castrignano dei Greci 4164 Corigliano d'Otranto 5762 Cutrofiano 9250 Martano 9588 Martignano 1784 Melpignano 2234 Soleto 5551 Sternatia 2583 Zollino 2143 Totale 54278 Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  16. ^ Bellinello, Pier Francesco (1998). Minoranze etniche e linguistiche. Bios. p. 53. ISBN 8877401214 9788877401212 Check |isbn= value: length (help). Le attuali colonie Greche calabresi; La Grecìa calabrese si inscrive nel massiccio aspromontano e si concentra nell'ampia e frastagliata valle dell'Amendolea e nelle balze più a oriente, dove sorgono le fiumare dette di S. Pasquale, di Palizzi e Sidèroni e che costituiscono la Bovesia vera e propria. Compresa nei territori di cinque comuni (Bova Superiore, Bova Marina, Roccaforte del Greco, Roghudi, Condofuri), la Grecia si estende per circa 233 kmq. La popolazione anagrafica complessiva è di circa 14.000 unità.
  17. ^ "Hellenic Republic Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Italy, The Greek Community". Greek community. The Greek diaspora consists of some 30,000 people, most of whom are to be found in Central Italy. There has also been an age-old presence of Italian nationals of Greek descent, who speak the Greco dialect peculiar to the Magna Graecia region. This dialect can be traced historically back to the era of Byzantine rule, but even as far back as classical antiquity.
  18. ^ "Hellenic Republic Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Greece and sub-Saharan African Countries Bilateral Relations".
  19. ^ "The Greek Community". Archived from the original on 2007-06-13.
  20. ^ http://www.mfa.gr/www.mfa.gr/el-GR/Policy/Geographic+Regions/Europe/Relationships+with+EU+Member+States/France/
  21. ^ "Hellenic Republic Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Argentina, The Greek Community".
  22. ^ "Ecodata, Belgian Statistics".
  23. ^ "Greek community of Sweden". Hellenic Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
  24. ^ "Ethnodemographic situation in Kazakhstan" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-03-07.
  25. ^ "Switzerland". www.mfa.gr. Retrieved 2008-12-24.
  26. ^ "GREEKS IN UZBEKISTAN - Central Asia-Caucasus Institute Analyst". www.cacianalyst.org. Retrieved 2008-12-24.
  27. ^ "Recensamant Romania 2002 < Articole InfoAfaceri < ClubAfaceri.ro". www.clubafaceri.ro. Retrieved 2008-12-24.
  28. ^ أ ب However according to the Human Rights Watch the Greek population in Turkey is estimated at 2,500 in 2006. "From “Denying Human Rights and Ethnic Identity” series of Human Rights Watch" Human Rights Watch, 2 July 2006.
  29. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  30. ^ http://www.mfa.gr/www.mfa.gr/el-GR/Policy/Geographic+Regions/Latin+America-Caribbean/Bilateral+Relations/Chile/
  31. ^ أ ب خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Sutton
  32. ^ Guibernau & Hutchinson 2004, p. 23: "Indeed, Smith emphasizes that the myth of divine election sustains the continuity of cultural identity, and, in that regard, has enabled certain pre-modern communities such as the Jews, Armenians, and Greeks to survive and persist over centuries and millennia (Smith 1993: 15–20)."
  33. ^ Smith 1999, p. 21: "It emphasizes the role of myths, memories and symbols of ethnic chosenness, trauma, and the 'golden age' of saints, sages, and heroes in the rise of modern nationalism among the Jews, Armenians, and Greeks—the archetypal diaspora peoples."
  34. ^ Bryce 2006, p. 91
  35. ^ Cadogan 1986, p. 125
  36. ^ Bryce 2006, p. 92
  37. ^ Drews 1994, p. 21
  38. ^ Mallory & Adams 1997, p. 243
  39. ^ "The Greeks". Encyclopædia Britannica. US: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. 2008. Online Edition. More than one of |encyclopedia= and |encyclopedia= specified (help)
  40. ^ Chadwick 1976, p. 2
  41. ^ أ ب "Linear A and Linear B". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. Retrieved 3 March 2016. More than one of |encyclopedia= and |encyclopedia= specified (help)
  42. ^ Castleden 2005, p. 228.
  43. ^ Tartaron 2013, p. 28; Schofield 2006, pp. 71–72; Panayotou 2007, pp. 417–426.
  44. ^ أ ب خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Adrados
  45. ^ "Greek literature". Encyclopædia Britannica. United States: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. 27 August 2014. Online Edition. More than one of |encyclopedia= and |encyclopedia= specified (help)
  46. ^ "New Linear B tablet found at Iklaina". Comité International Permanent des Études Mycéniennes, UNESCO. Archived from the original on 15 October 2013. Retrieved 29 April 2012.
  47. ^ Winford 2003, p. 71.
  48. ^ Mackridge 1990, p. 25.
  49. ^ Tomić 2006, p. 703.
  50. ^ Fasold 1984, p. 160.
  51. ^ "Greece". PewForum. 4 April 2014. Retrieved 4 April 2014.
  52. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة Christianity-Hellenism
  53. ^ Head, James (20 March 2007). "The ancient gods of Greece are not extinct". New Statesman. p. The Faith Column. Retrieved 12 May 2016.
  54. ^ de Quetteville, Harry (8 May 2004). "Modern Athenians fight for the right to worship the ancient Greek gods". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 12 May 2016.
  55. ^ "Freedom of Religion in Greece". International Religious Freedom Report. United States Department of State. 2006. Retrieved 12 May 2016.
  56. ^ Tsokalidou, Roula (2002). "Greek-Speaking Enclaves of Lebanon and Syria" (PDF). Actas/Proceedings II Simposio Internacional Bilingüismo. Roula Tsokalidou (Primary School Education Department, University of Thessaly, Greece). pp. 1245–1255.
  57. ^ R. J. Rummel. "Statistics of Democide". Chapter 5, Statistics of Turkey's Democide Estimates, Calculations, And Sources. Retrieved 4 October 2006.
  58. ^ Smith, Helena (19 January 2015). "Young, gifted and Greek: Generation G – the world's biggest brain drain". The Guardian.
  59. ^ Lowen, Mark (29 May 2013). "Greece's young: Dreams on hold as fight for jobs looms". BBC News. Retrieved 25 July 2013. The brain drain is quickening. A recent study by the University of Thessaloniki found that more than 120,000 professionals, including doctors, engineers and scientists, have left Greece since the start of the crisis in 2010.
  60. ^ Melander, Ingrid (28 October 2011). "Greeks seek to escape debt crisis abroad". Reuters. Retrieved 25 July 2013.

المراجع


الهامش

مواضيع ذات صلة

حضارة الإغريق.


قالب:Ethnic groups in Greece

الكلمات الدالة: