افتح القائمة الرئيسية

إبهام

الابهام هو الاِصبع الأول في الكف، إبهام اليد البشرية يختلف عن بقية الأصابع في الاتجاه واتجاه الحركة بحيث يكمل مهام اليد مثل الامساك والضغط.

Thumb
Duim.jpg
The Thumb.
Details
الشريانprinceps pollicis artery
لمفinfraclavicular lymph nodes[1]
Identifiers
اللاتينيةpollex, digitus primus, digitus I
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TH{{#property:P1694}}
TE{{#property:P1693}}
FMAFMA:{{#property:P1402}}
المصطلحات التشريحية

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فهرست

تعريف

باعتباره واحد من خمسة أرقام، ومصاحب لأربعة أصابع أخرى

إبهام مقابل

 
A bonobo "fishing" for termites, an example of incomplete/"untrue" opposition.[2]

المقابل والمقارب

الإبهام المقابل Opposable thumb، هو إبهام يد مجموعة الرئيسات، والذي يمكن تحريكه إلى وضع مقابل للأصابع، فتزيد مهارة الفرد.[3]

التشريح البشري

الهيكل العظمي

العضلات

   
Flexor pollicis longus (left) and deep muscles of dorsal forearm (left)

A ventral forearm muscle, the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) originates on the anterior side of the radius distal to the radial tuberosity and from the interosseous membrane. It passes through the carpal tunnel in a separate tendon sheath, after which it lies between the heads of the flexor pollicis brevis. It finally attaches onto the base of the distal phalanx of the thumb. It is innervated by the anterior interosseus branch of the median nerve (C7-C8)[4]

   
Thenar (left) and dorsal interossei (left) muscles


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التباين

 
Hitchhiker's thumbs

القبضات

   
Left: In a power grip the object is in contact with the palm.
left: Cricketer Jack Iverson's "bent finger grip", an unusual pad-to-side precision grip designed to confuse batsmen.

التطور

الحيوانات الأخرى مع أرقام مقابلة

انظر أيضا

الهوامش

  1. ^ Norman/Georgetown clinicalconsiderations
  2. ^ "The Thumb is the Hero". The New York Times. January 11, 1981. Retrieved November 2010. The "fishing rod" a chimp strips of leaves and pokes into a termite nest to bring up a snack is as far as he'll ever get toward orbiting the planets. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  3. ^ عبد الجليل هويدي، محمد أحمد هيكل (2004). أساسيات الجيولوجيا التاريخية. مكتبة الدار العربية للكتب.
  4. ^ Platzer 2004, p. 162


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المصادر

Ankel-Simons, Friderun (2007). "Chapter 8: Postcranial Skeleton". Primate Anatomy (3rd ed.). Academic Press. p. 345. ISBN 0-12-372576-3.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Austin, Noelle M. (2005). "Chapter 9: The Wrist and Hand Complex". In Levangie, Pamela K.; Norkin, Cynthia C. (eds.). Joint Structure and Function: A Comprehensive Analysis (4th ed.). Philadelphia: F. A. Davis Company. ISBN 0-8036-1191-9.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Brown, David P.; Freeman, Eric D.; Cuccurullo, Sara; Freeman, Ted L. (2004). "Upper Extremities—Hand Region: Range of Motion of the Digits". In Cuccurullo, Sara (ed.). Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Board Review. Demos Medical Publishing. ISBN 1-888799-45-5.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) (NCBI)
Brunelli, Giovanni R. (1999). "Stability in the first carpometacarpal joint". In Brüser, Peter; Gilbert, Alain (eds.). Finger bone and joint injuries. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 1-85317-690-7.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Byrne, R.W.; Byrne, J.M.E. (1993). "Complex Leaf-Gathering Skills of Mountain Gorillas (Gorilla g. beringei): Variability and Standardization" (PDF). American Journal of Primatology. John Wiley & Sons. 31 (4): 241. doi:10.1002/ajp.1350310402. ISSN 0275-2565.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Christel, Marianne I.; Kitzel, Stefanie; Niemitz, Carsten (30 November 2004). "How Precisely do Bonobos (Pan paniscus) Grasp Small Objects?". International Journal of Primatology. 19 (1): 165–194. doi:10.1023/A:1020319313219.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Costello, Michael B.; Fragaszy, Dorothy M. (March 1988). "Prehension in Cebus and Saimiri: I. Grip type and hand preference". American Journal of Primatology. Wiley-Liss. 15 (3): 235–245. doi:10.1002/ajp.1350150306.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
de Klerk, W.J.; Forster, C.A.; Sampson, S.D.; Chinsamy, A. (2000). "A new coelurosaurian dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous of South Africa" (PDF). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 2 (20): 324–332. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Franzen, JL; Gingerich, PD; Habersetzer, J; Hurum, JH (2009). Hawks, John (ed.). "Complete Primate Skeleton from the Middle Eocene of Messel in Germany: Morphology and Paleobiology". PLoS ONE. 4 (5): e5723. Bibcode:2009PLoSO...4.5723F. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005723. PMC 2683573. PMID 19492084. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Harcourt-Smith, W E H; Aiello, L C (2004). "Fossils, feet and the evolution of human bipedal locomotion". Journal of anatomy. J Anat. 204 (5): 403–16. doi:10.1111/j.0021-8782.2004.00296.x. PMC 1571304. PMID 15198703. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Hsu, Ar-Tyan (July 2008). "Effect of Gender, Flexibility and Thumb Type on Thumb Tip Generation". Journal of Biomechanics. 41 (Supplement 1): S148. doi:10.1016/S0021-9290(08)70148-9. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
McBride, Earl Duwain (1942). Disability evaluation: principles of treatment of compensable injuries. Lippincott. p. 631.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
McDade, Melissa C. (2003). "Koalas (Phascolartidae)". In Hutchins, Michael; Kleiman, Devra G.; Geist, Valerius; McDade, Melissa C. (eds.). Grzimek’s animal life encyclopedia: Volumes 12–16, Mammals I–V (2nd ed.). Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Moyà-Solà, Salvador; Köhler, Meike; Rook, Lorenzo (1999). "Evidence of hominid-like precision grip capability in the hand of the Miocene ape Oreopithecus" (PDF). PNAS. 96 (1): 313–317. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.1.313. PMC 15136. PMID 9874815. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Napier, John Russell (November 1956). "The prehensile movements of the human hand" (PDF). J Bone Joint Surg Br. 38 (4): 902–913. PMID 13376678.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Nowak, Ronald M. (1999). Walker's mammals of the world, Volume 2 (6th ed.). JHU Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-5789-8.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Platzer, Werner (2004). Color Atlas of Human Anatomy, Vol. 1: Locomotor System (5th ed.). Thieme. ISBN 3-13-533305-1.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Slocum, D.B.; Pratt, D.R. (1946). "Disability Evaluation for the Hand" (PDF). Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 28 (3): 491.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
van Nierop, Onno A.; van der Helm, Aadjan; Overbeeke, Kees J.; Djajadiningrat, Tom J.P. (2008). "A natural human hand model" (PDF). Visual Comput. 24 (24): 31–44. doi:10.1007/s00371-007-0176-x.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Young, Richard W. (2003). "Evolution of the human hand: the role of throwing and clubbing". Journal of Anatomy. 202 (1): 165–174. doi:10.1046/j.1469-7580.2003.00144.x. PMC 1571064. PMID 12587931. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)

وصلات خارجية