الخدمة الجوية الخاصة

(تم التحويل من Special Air Service)

الخدمة الجوية الخاصة Special Air Service أو SAS، هو فوج قوات خاصة تابع للجيش البريطاني شارك ممثلا للقوات الخاصة في بلدان أخرى كثيرة في العالم.[8][10] تشكل الخدمة الجوية الخاصة مع خدمة القوارب الخاصة (SBS)، فوج الاستطلاع الخاص (SRR)، ومجموعة دعم القوات الخاصة (SFSG) القوات الخاصة في المملكة المتحدة تحت قيادة ادارة القوات الخاصة.

الخدمة الجوية الخاصة
Special Air Service
Special Air Service in North Africa E 21337.jpg
أفراد الخدمة الجوية الخاصة المشاركين في حملة شمال أفريقيا أثناء الحرب العالمية الثانية
نشطة1 يوليو 1941– 8 أكتوبر 1945[1][2]
1 يناير 1947– الآن[3]
البلدالمملكة المتحدة
الفرعالجيش البريطاني
النوعقوات خاصة
الدورعمليات خاصة
مكافحة الإرهاب
الحجمفوج من ثلاث كتائب
21 S.A.S
22 S.A.S
23 S.A.S [nb 1]
جزء منالقوات الخاصة في المملكة المتحدة
مقر الحامية21 S.A.S: London[6]
22 S.A.S: Credenhill [6]
23 S.A.S: Birmingham[6]
الشعار اللفظيWho Dares Wins[8]
الألوانPompadore blue[8]
المشيةQuick: Marche des Parachutistes Belges [8]
Slow: Lili Marlene[8]
الاشتباكاتالحرب العالمية الثانية
Malayan Emergency
Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation
Dhofar Rebellion
Aden Emergency
Northern Irish Troubles
Falklands War
Gulf War
NATO intervention in البوسنة
Operation Barras
الحرب في أفغانستان
حرب العراق
Colonel-Commandantجنرال Charles Guthrie[9]
Colonel David Stirling
Lieutenant-Colonel Paddy Mayne
Brigadier Mike Calvert
Major-General Anthony Deane-Drummond
General Peter de la Billière
General Michael Rose
Lieutenant-General Cedric Delves

رغم أن الخدمة الجوية الخاصة تعود بأصولها إلى عام 1941 والحرب العالمية الثانية لكنها نالت شهرتها عالميا بعد نجاحها في اقتحام السفارة الإيرانية وتحرير الرهائن أثناء حصار السفارة الإيرانية 1980.[11]

تتكون الخدمة الجوية الخاصة من 22 فوج خدمة جوية خاصة من الجيش النظامي، 21 Special Air Service Regiment and 23 Special Air Service Regiment provided by the Territorial Army. It is tasked with special operations in wartime, and primarily counter-terrorism in peacetime.

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The Special Air Service was a unit of the British Army during the Second World War, formed in July 1941 by David Stirling and originally called "L" Detachment, Special Air Service Brigade — the "L"designation and Air Service name being a tie-in to a British disinformation campaign, trying to deceive the Axis into thinking there was a paratrooper regiment with numerous units operating in the area (the real SAS would 'prove' to the Axis that the fake one existed).[1][12] It was conceived as a commando force to operate behind enemy lines in the North African Campaign[13] and initially consisted of five officers and 60 other ranks.[14] Its first mission, in November 1941, was a parachute drop in support of the Operation Crusader offensive.[12] Unfortunately, because of enemy resistance and adverse weather conditions, the mission was a disaster: 22 men, a third of the unit, were killed or captured.[15] Its second mission was a success: transported by the Long Range Desert Group, it attacked three airfields in Libya, destroying 60 aircraft without loss.[15] In September 1942 it was renamed 1st SAS, consisting at that time of four British squadrons, one Free French, one Greek, and the Folboat Section.[16]

In January 1943, Stirling was captured in Tunisia and Paddy Mayne replaced him as commander.[17] In April 1943, the 1st SAS was reorganised into the Special Raiding Squadron under Mayne's command and the Special Boat Squadron was placed under the command of George Jellicoe.[18] The Special Raiding Squadron fought in Sicily and Italy along with the 2nd SAS, which had been formed in North Africa in 1943 in part by the re-naming of the Small Scale Raiding Force.[19][20] The Special Boat Squadron fought in the Aegean Islands and Dodecanese until the end of the war.[21] In 1944 the SAS Brigade was formed from the British 1st and 2nd SAS, the French 3rd and 4th SAS and the Belgian 5th SAS.[22] It was tasked with parachute operations behind the German lines in France[2] and carried out operations supporting the Allied advance through Belgium, the Netherlands, and eventually into Germany.[22]

ما بعد الحرب

At the end of the war the British Government saw no further need for the force and disbanded it on 8 October 1945.[2] However, the following year it was decided there was a need for a long-term deep-penetration commando unit, and a new SAS regiment was to be raised as part of the Territorial Army.[23] Ultimately, the Artists Rifles, raised in 1860 and headquartered at Dukes Road, Euston, took on the SAS mantle as 21st SAS Regiment (V) on 1 January 1947.[3][23]

21 SAS soldier after a night parachute drop exercise in Denmark, 1955

In 1950, a 21 SAS squadron was raised to fight in the Korean War. After three months of training in England, it was informed that the squadron would no longer be required in Korea and so it instead volunteered to fight in the Malayan Emergency.[24] Upon arrival in Malaya, it came under the command of Mike Calvert who was forming a new unit called the Malayan Scouts (SAS).[24] Calvert had already formed one squadron from 100 volunteers in the Far East, which became A Squadron — the 21 SAS squadron then became B Squadron; and after a recruitment visit to Rhodesia by Calvert, C Squadron was formed from 1,000 Rhodesian volunteers.[25] The Rhodesians returned home after three years service and were replaced by a New Zealand squadron.[26] By this time, the need for a regular army SAS regiment had been recognised; 22 SAS Regiment was formally added to the army list in 1952 and has been based at Hereford since 1960.[8] In 1959 the third regiment, 23 SAS Regiment, was formed by renaming the Reserve Reconnaissance Unit, which had succeeded MI9 and were experts in escape and evasion.[27]

فرقة 22 الخدمة الجوية الخاصة

Since serving in Malaya, men from the regular army 22 SAS Regiment have taken part in covert reconnaissance and surveillance by patrols and some larger scale raiding missions in Borneo.[28] An operation against communist guerillas included the Battle of Mirbat in the Oman.[29] They have also taken part in operations in the Aden Emergency,[30] Northern Ireland,[31] and Gambia.[28] Their Special projects team assisted the West German counter-terrorism group GSG 9 at Mogadishu.[28] During the Falklands War D and G squadrons were deployed and participated in the raid on Pebble Island.[32] Operation Flavius was an anti–terrorist operation in Gibraltar against the Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA).[28] The SAS counter terrorist wing famously took part in a hostage rescue operation during the Iranian Embassy Siege in London.[33] It directed NATO aircraft onto Serb positions and hunted war criminals in Bosnia.[34][35]

The Gulf War, in which A, B and D squadrons deployed, was the largest SAS mobilisation since the Second World War, also notable for the failure of the Bravo Two Zero mission.[36] In Sierra Leone it took part in Operation Barras, a hostage rescue operation, to extract members of the Royal Irish Regiment.[28] In the Iraq War, it formed part of Task Force Black and Task Force Knight, with A Squadron 22 SAS being singled out for exceptional service by General Stanley McChrystal, the American commander of NATO forces: during a six month tour it carried out 175 combat missions.[37] In 2006 members of the SAS were involved in the rescue of peace activists Norman Kember, James Loney and Harmeet Singh Sooden. The three men had been held hostage in Iraq for 118 days during the Christian Peacemaker hostage crisis.[38] Operations against the Taliban in Afghanistan[39] involved soldiers from 21 and 23 SAS Regiments.[6]

Bravo Two Zero patrol members

In recent years SAS officers have risen to the highest ranks in the British Army. General Peter de la Billière was the Commander-in-Chief of the British forces in the 1990 Gulf War.[40] General Michael Rose became commander of the United Nations Protection Force in Bosnia in 1994.[41] In 1997 General Charles Guthrie became Chief of the Defence Staff the head of the British Armed Forces.[42] Lieutenant-General Cedric Delves was appointed Commander of the Field Army and Deputy Commander in Chief NATO Regional Headquarters Allied Forces North in 2002–2003.[43]

التفاعل مع القوات الخاصة الأخرى

Following the post-war reconstitution of the Special Air Service, other countries in the Commonwealth recognised their needs for Special Forces-type units. Australia formed the 1st SAS Company in July 1957, which became a full regiment the Australian Special Air Service Regiment (SASR) in August 1964.[44] The New Zealand Special Air Service squadron was formed in 1954 to serve with the British SAS in Malaya.[26] On its return from Malaya, the C (Rhodesian) Squadron formed the basis for creation of the Rhodesian Special Air Service in 1961.[27]

Non-commonwealth countries have also formed units based on the SAS. Impressed by the Australian SASR methods in Vietnam, American General William Westmoreland ordered the formation of a Long Range Reconnaissance Patrol (LRRP) unit in each infantry brigade, modelled on the SASR.[45] Another American unit, Delta Force, was formed by Charles Alvin Beckwith, who served with 22 SAS as an exchange officer, and recognized the need for a similar type of unit in the United States Army.[46] It is claimed the Israeli Sayeret Matkal was also modelled on the SAS and even shares the same "who dares wins" motto.[47] The French 1st Marine Infantry Parachute Regiment can trace its origins to the Second World War 3rd and 4th SAS, also adopting its "who dares wins" motto.[48]

الثورة الليبية 2011

في مارس 2011، أرسلت فريق مكون من 6 أفراد تابع للخدمة الجوية الخاصة في رفقة دبلوماسيين إلى مدينة نغازي في مهمة سرية للتفاوض مع المعارضة الليبية ضد الرئيس معمر القذافي. وقامت المعارضة باحتجاز الدبلوماسيين والفرقة الخاصة المرافقة له إلى أنت أطلقت سراحهم في 6 مارس 2011. وأعلنت المعارضة أنها رفضت التحدث مع الفريق البريطاني لأنهم دخلوا البلاد بشكل غير شرعي.[49]

وقال وزير الخارجية البريطاني ويليام هيگ: «بإمكاني تأكيد أن الفريق الدبلوماسي البريطاني الصغير كان موجودا في بنغازي. ذهب الفريق إلى ليبيا لبدء الاتصالات مع المعارضة. وقد عانى أفراده من صعوبات تم الآن التغلب عليها بشكل مرض. وهم غادروا ليبيا الآن». وأكد هيگ عزم بلاده على إرسال فريق آخر بالتنسيق مع المعارضة لتعزيز الحوار حينما يحين الوقت الملائم، قائلا إن مساعينا الدبلوماسية هذه هي جزء مما نقوم به بخصوص ليبيا بما في ذلك الدعم الإنساني القائم حاليا». وكرر هيگ من جديد طلبه للزعيم الليبي معمر القذافي بالتنحي، وأكد عزم بلاده العمل مع المجموعة الدولية لدعم المطامح المشروعة للشعب الليبي. واحتجزت المعارضة المسلحة الليبية الفريق لدى دخوله المدينة بطائرة هليكوبتر بطريقة غير رسمية. وكانت «الشرق الأوسط» قد نشرت في عددها أول من أمس نقلا عن مصادر ليبية مطلعة أن فريقا بريطانيا من القوات الخاصة تم احتجازه في بنغازي. وقال مصدر في بنغازي الواقعة تحت سيطرة المحتجين: «المعارضون احتجزوا أفرادا من القوات الخاصة البريطانية. لم يتمكنوا من تأكيد ما إذا كانوا أصدقاء أم أعداء. من أجل سلامتنا احتجزناهم ونتوقع أن تحل هذه المسألة قريبا. هم بخير وفي أيد أمينة. لا نعلم لماذا لم تتصل الحكومة البريطانية أولا أو توضح هدف المهمة».


Little publicly verifiable information exists on the SAS, as the United Kingdom Government does not usually comment on special forces matters.[50][51] The Special Air Service comprises three units: one Regular and two reserve Territorial Army (TA) units. The regular army unit is 22 SAS Regiment and territorial army units are 21 SAS Regiment (Artists) and 23 SAS Regiment.[5]


22 SAS Regiment has four operational squadrons: A, B, D and G. Each squadron consists of approximately 60 men commanded by a major, divided into four troops and a small headquarters section.[37][52] Troops usually consist of 16 men,[39] and each patrol within a troop consists of four men, with each man possessing a particular skill: signals, demolition, medic or linguist in addition to basic skills learned during the course of his training.[52] The four troops specialise in four different areas:

In 1980 R Squadron was formed which has since been renamed L Detachment; its members are all ex-regular SAS regiment soldiers who have a commitment to reserve service.[52][nb 2]

22 Special Air Service Regiment 21 Special Air Service Regiment (Artists) 23 Special Air Service Regiment
'A' Squadron (Hereford)[6] 'A' Squadron (Regent's Park)[6] 'B' Squadron (Leeds)[57]
'B' Squadron[58] 'C' Squadron (Bramley)[59] 'D' Squadron (Scotland)[60]
'D' Squadron[61] 'E' Squadron (Wales)[62] 'G' Squadron (Manchester)[63]
'G' Squadron[61][nb 3]

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فريق المشروعات الخاصة

The special projects team is the official name for the Special Air Service anti–hijacking counter–terrorism team.[52] It is trained in Close Quarter Battle (CQB) and sniper techniques and specializes in hostage rescue in buildings or on public transport.[65] The team was formed in 1975 when then Prime Minister Edward Heath asked the Ministry of Defence to prepare for any possible terrorist attack similar to the massacre at the 1972 Summer Olympics and ordered that the SAS Counter Revolutionary Warfare (CRW) wing be raised.[66]

Once the wing had been established, each squadron rotated on a continual basis through counter–terrorist training including hostage rescue, siege breaking, and live firing exercises — it has been reported that during CRW training each soldier expends as many as 100,000 pistol rounds. Squadrons refresh their training every 16 months, on average. The CRW wing's first deployment was during the Balcombe Street Siege. The Metropolitan Police had trapped a PIRA unit; it surrendered when it heard on the BBC that the SAS was being sent in.[66]

The first documented action abroad by the CRW wing was assisting the West German counter-terrorism group GSG 9 at Mogadishu.[28] In 1980 the SAS were involved in a hostage rescue during the Iranian Embassy Siege.

القوات الخاصة التابعة للمملكة المتحدة

The Special Air Service is under the operational command of the Director Special Forces (DSF), a major-general grade post. Previously ranked as a brigadier, the DSF was promoted from brigadier to major-general in recognition of the significant expansion of the United Kingdom Special Forces (UKSF).[67] The UKSF originally consisted of the regular and the reserve units of the SAS and the Special Boat Service, then joined by two new units: the Special Forces Support Group and the Special Reconnaissance Regiment.[67] They are supported by the 18 (UKSF) Signal Regiment and the Joint Special Forces Aviation Wing, part of which (8 Flight Army Air Corps) is based in Hereford with the SAS.[68][69][70]

الاختيار، التوظيف، والتدريب

Pen y Fan 2,907 قدم (886 م) above sea-level. The location for the Fan dance.

All members of the United Kingdom armed forces can be considered for special forces selection,[nb 4] but historically the majority of candidates have an airborne forces background.[72] All instructors are full members of the Special Air Service Regiment. Selections are held twice yearly, in summer and winter,[71] in Sennybridge in the Brecon Beacons. Selection lasts for five weeks and normally starts with about 200 potential candidates.[71] On arrival candidates first complete a Personal Fitness Test (PFT) and a Combat Fitness Test (CFT).[nb 5] They then march cross country against the clock, increasing the distances covered each day, culminating in what is known as the Fan dance: a 14 ميلs (23 kم) march with full equipment scaling and descending Pen y Fan in four hours.[71] By the end of the hill phase candidates must be able to run 4 miles in 30 minutes and swim two miles in 90 minutes.[71]

Following the hill phase is the jungle phase, taking place in Belize, Brunei, or Malaysia.[74] Candidates are taught navigation, patrol formation and movement, and jungle survival skills.[75] Candidates returning to Hereford finish training in battle plans and foreign weapons and take part in combat survival exercises,[76] the final one being the week-long escape and evasion. Candidates are formed into patrols and, carrying nothing more than a tin can filled with survival equipment, are dressed in old Second World War uniforms and told to head for a point by first light. The final selection test is arguably the most gruelling: resistance to interrogation (RTI), lasting for 36 hours.[77]

Typically, 15–20% of candidates make it through the hill phase selection process. From the approximately 200 candidates, most will drop out within the first few days, and by the end about 30 will remain. Those who complete all phases of selection are rewarded with a transfer to an operational squadron.[78]

اختيار احتياطي الخدمة الجوية الخاصة

The Territorial Army Special Air Service (reserve) Regiments undergo the same selection process, but as a part-time programme over a longer period:

  • nine weekends of endurance training;
  • one week endurance training in the Brecon Beacons, followed by
  • a one week assessment (Test Week) at the Beacons.[79]

This is followed by Standard Operational Procedure (SOP) Training, comprising:

  • nine weekends patrol SOP's including surveillance and reconnaissance;
  • one-week live-firing including patrol contact drills and troop offensive action;
  • a nine-day battle camp comprising live-firing assessment and field training exercise to test the skills learned throughout selection;
  • culminating in Conduct after Capture (CAC) training.[79]

On successful completion of this training, ranks are badged as SAS(R) and deemed fit for appointment. They enter a probationary period during which they complete final training:

  • Basic Parachute Course;
  • Special Forces Communications Course; and
  • a main training period to be fit for mobilisation.[79]

Uniform distinctions

The Special Air Service, like every British regiment, has its own uniform distinctions. Its normal barracks headdress is the sand-coloured beret,[8] its cap badge is a downward pointing flaming sword (often wrongly referred to as a winged dagger) worked in cloth of a Crusader shield with the motto Who Dares Wins.[80][nb 6] SAS pattern parachute wings, designed by Lieutenant Jock Lewes and based on the stylised sacred Ibis wings of Isis of Egyptian iconography depicted in the décor of Shepheard's Hotel in Cairo, are worn on the right shoulder.[82] Its ceremonial No 1 Dress Uniform is distinguished by a light blue stripe on the trousers; the Commanding Officer and officer of the day wear a black leather pouch belt mounted with a silver whistle chain and the Mars and Minerva badge of the Artists Rifles.[8] Its Stable belt is a shade of blue similar to the blue stripe on the No 1 dress uniform.[8]

Battle honours

In the British Army, battle honours are awarded to regiments that have seen active service in a significant engagement or campaign, generally with a victorious outcome.[83] The Special Air Service Regiment has been awarded the following battle honours:[84][85]

North-West Europe 1944-45 • Tobruk 1941 • Benghazi Raid • North Africa 1940-43 • Landing in Sicily • Sicily 1943 • Termoli • Valli di Comacchio • Italy 1943-45 • Greece 1944-45 • Adriatic • Middle East 1943-44 • Falkland Islands 1982 • Western Iraq • Gulf 1991

Order of precedence

قالب:Order of precedence

نصب تذكارية

The names of those members of the SAS who have died on duty are inscribed on the regimental clock tower at Sterling lines.[86] Inscribed on the base of the clock is a verse from the The Golden Road to Samarkand by James Elroy Flecker:[87]

We are the Pilgrims, master; we shall go
Always a little further: it may be
Beyond that last blue mountain barred with snow
Across that angry or that glimmering sea ...

The other main memorial is the SAS and Airborne Forces memorial in the Cloisters at Westminster Abbey. There is also the SAS Brigade Memorial at Sennecey-le-Grand in France commemorates the wartime dead of the Belgian, British and French SAS and recently a memorial plaque was added to the David Stirling Memorial in Scotland. There are other smaller memorials "scattered throughout Europe and in the Far East".[88]

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  أستراليا: Special Air Service Regiment[89]
  نيوزيلندا: Special Air Service[89]


  1. ^ On 31 July 1947, the 21st Battalion, SAS Regiment, (Artists Rifles) (Territorial Army) was formed. This was followed on the 16 July 1952, when the 22 SAS Regiment was formed as a battalion of the SAS Regiment and the 23 Special Air Service Regiment (Territorial Army) was formed in February 1958.[4][5]
  2. ^ The Regular reserve is made up of ex-soldiers who have a mobilisation obligation by virtue of their former service in the regular army. For the most part, these reservists constitute a standby rather than ready reserve, and are rarely mobilised except in times of national emergency or incipient war.[56]
  3. ^ Named G Squadron after the Guards independent parachute company which was disbanded in 1975. Most members are from the Brigade of Guards[64]
  4. ^ The regular elements of United Kingdom Special Forces never recruit directly from the general public,[71]
  5. ^ PFT —a minimum of 50 sit ups in two minutes, and 44 press-ups in two minutes and a 1.5 ميلs (2.4 kم) run in 10 minutes 30 seconds.
    CFT — A march as a squad of 8 ميلs (13 kم) in two hours carrying 25 kiloغرامs (880 أونصة) of equipment.[73]
  6. ^ Designed by Bob Tait in 1941, it is a flaming sword, although it is often known as a winged dagger[81]


  1. ^ أ ب Molinari, p.22
  2. ^ أ ب ت Shortt & McBride, p.16
  3. ^ أ ب Shortt & McBride,p.18
  4. ^ "Brief history of the regiment". Special Air Service Association. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
  5. ^ أ ب "UK Defence Statistics 2009". Defence Analytical Services Agency. Retrieved 26 March 2010.
  6. ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح Rayment, Sean (28 December 2003). "Overstretched SAS calls up part-time troops for Afghanistan". London: The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 18 March 2010.
  7. ^ Ryan, p.216
  8. ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح خ د ذ Griffin, pp.150–152
  9. ^ Moreton, Cole (11 November 2007). "Lord Guthrie: 'Tony's General' turns defence into an attack". London: The Independent. Retrieved 18 March 2010.
  10. ^ Adams, p.102
  11. ^ Thompson, p.8
  12. ^ أ ب Haskew, p.39
  13. ^ Thompson, p.7
  14. ^ Thompson, p.48
  15. ^ أ ب Haskew, p.40
  16. ^ Molinari, p.25
  17. ^ Haskew, p.42
  18. ^ Morgan, p.15
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  20. ^ "Obituary:Major Roy Farran". London: The Times. 6 June 2006. Retrieved 28 March 2010.
  21. ^ Haskew, pp.52–54
  22. ^ أ ب Shortt & McBride, p.15
  23. ^ أ ب Shortt & McBride, p.17
  24. ^ أ ب "Obituary — Major Alastair McGregor". London: The Daily Telegraph. 3 October 2002. Retrieved 19 March 2010.
  25. ^ Shortt & McBride, p.19
  26. ^ أ ب Shortt & McBride, p.20
  27. ^ أ ب Shortt & McBride, p.22
  28. ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح Scholey & Forsyth, p.12
  29. ^ Scholey & Forsyth, p.104
  30. ^ Scholey & Forsyth, p.57
  31. ^ Scholey & Forsyth, p.53
  32. ^ Scholey & Forsyth, p.212
  33. ^ Scholey & Forsyth, p.11
  34. ^ Hawton, Nick (2 April 2004). "Karadzic escapes again as SAS swoops on church". London: The Times. Retrieved 21 March 2010.
  35. ^ Bellamy, Christopher (11 April 1994). "Ground attack is first in Nato history: British SAS troops help US war planes to deliver a timely warning to Serbs that 'safe areas' must be respected, writes Christopher Bellamy in Split". London: The Independent. Retrieved 21 March 2010.
  36. ^ Scholey & Forsyth, p.265
  37. ^ أ ب Harnden, Toby (23 March 2010). "Gen Stanley McChrystal pays tribute to courage of British special forces". London: The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 25 March 2010.
  38. ^ Meo, Nick; Evans, Michael; McGrory, Daniel (25 March 2006). "Army's top general attacks Kember for failing to thank SAS rescue team". London: The Times. Retrieved 22 March 2010.
  39. ^ أ ب Finlan, Alistair. "The arrested development of UK special forces and the global war on terror". Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 17 March 2010.
  40. ^ "Breakfast with Frost, interview". BBC. 30 March 2003. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
  41. ^ "Insurgents 'right to take on US'". BBC. 3 May 2007. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
  42. ^ Thompson, Alice; Sylvester, Rachel (25 July 2009). "Guthrie attacks Gordon Brown over helicopters for Afghanistan troops". London: The Times. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
  43. ^ "Armed Forces:officers". Parliament of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
  44. ^ "Special Air Service Regiment". Digger History. Retrieved 14 April 2010.
  45. ^ Shortt & McBride, p.26
  46. ^ Delta Force: The Army's Elite Counterterrorist Unit. Editorial Review, VNU Business Media, Inc. 2000-05-25. ISBN 9780380809394. Retrieved 14 April 2010.
  47. ^ Silvestri, p.146
  48. ^ "Demi-brigade de parachutistes SAS". Ministere de la Defense. Retrieved 14 April 2010.
  49. ^ ثوار ليبيا يطلقون سراح فريق من القوات الخاصة ودبلوماسيين بريطانيين، وكالة أنباء الشرق الأوسط
  50. ^ "Prime Ministers Questions, Special Forces". Parliament of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 14 April 2010.
  51. ^ "Special Forces". Parliament of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 14 April 2010.
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وصلات خارجية

قالب:United Kingdom Special Forces قالب:British Commando units of the Second World War

الكلمات الدالة: