حملة گوادلكانال

(تم التحويل من Guadalcanal Campaign)

قالب:Campaignbox Solomons

Guadalcanal Campaign
جزء من the مسرح الهادي في الحرب العالمية الثانية
United States Marines rest in this field during the Guadalcanal campaign
United States Marines rest in the field during the Guadalcanal campaign
التاريخ7 August 1942 – 9 February 1943
(6 شهر و 2 يوم)
الموقع
النتيجة

Strategic Allied victory

  • Beginning of Allied Offensive Operations in the Pacific
الخصوم
Flag of إمبراطورية اليابان إمبراطورية اليابان
القادة والزعماء
الولايات المتحدة U.S. Navy:
Robert L. Ghormley
William F. Halsey, Jr.
Richmond K. Turner
Frank J. Fletcher
الولايات المتحدة U.S. Marine Corps:
Alexander A. Vandegrift
Merritt A. Edson
الولايات المتحدة U.S. Army:
Alexander M. Patch
إمبراطورية اليابان I.J. Navy:
Isoroku Yamamoto
Hiroaki Abe
Nobutake Kondō
Nishizo Tsukahara
Takeo Kurita
Jinichi Kusaka
Shōji Nishimura
Gunichi Mikawa
Raizō Tanaka
إمبراطورية اليابان I.J. Army:
Hitoshi Imamura
Harukichi Hyakutake
القوات
60,000 men (ground forces)[4] 36,200 men (ground forces)[5]
الخسائر
7,100 dead
7,789+ wounded[6]
4 captured
29 ships lost
615 aircraft lost[7]

19,200 dead

  • 8,500+ killed in action[8]
1,000 captured
38 ships lost
683–880 aircraft lost[9]

The Guadalcanal Campaign, also known as the Battle of Guadalcanal and codenamed Operation Watchtower was a military campaign fought between 7 August 1942 and 9 February 1943 on and around the island of Guadalcanal in the Pacific theater of World War II. It was the first major offensive by Allied forces against the Empire of Japan.

On 7 August 1942, Allied forces, predominantly United States Marines, landed on the islands of Guadalcanal, Tulagi, and Florida in the southern Solomon Islands, with the objective of denying their use by the Japanese to threaten Allied supply and communication routes between the US, Australia, and New Zealand. The Allies also intended to use Guadalcanal and Tulagi as bases to support a campaign to eventually capture or neutralize the major Japanese base at Rabaul on New Britain. The Allies overwhelmed the outnumbered Japanese defenders, who had occupied the islands since May 1942, and captured Tulagi and Florida, as well as an airfield (later named Henderson Field) that was under construction on Guadalcanal. Powerful American and Australian naval forces supported the landings.

Surprised by the Allied offensive, the Japanese made several attempts between August and November to retake Henderson Field. Three major land battles, seven large naval battles (five nighttime surface actions and two carrier battles), and continual (almost daily) aerial battles, culminated in the decisive Naval Battle of Guadalcanal in early November, in which the last Japanese attempt to bombard Henderson Field from the sea and land with enough troops to retake it was defeated. In December, the Japanese abandoned their efforts to retake Guadalcanal and evacuated their remaining forces by 7 February 1943, in the face of an offensive by the US Army's XIV Corps.

The Guadalcanal campaign was a significant strategic combined arms Allied victory in the Pacific theater. Along with the Battle of Midway, it has been called a turning point in the war against Japan.[10] The Japanese had reached the peak of their conquests in the Pacific. The victories at Milne Bay, Buna-Gona, and Guadalcanal marked the Allied transition from defensive operations to the strategic initiative in the theater, leading to offensive operations such as the Solomon Islands, New Guinea, and Central Pacific campaigns, that eventually resulted in Japan's surrender and the end of World War II.

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Background

Strategic considerations

 
Japanese control of the western Pacific area between May and August 1942. Guadalcanal is located in the lower right center of the map.


Events

Landings

 
Routes of Allied amphibious forces for landings on Guadalcanal and Tulagi, 7 August 1942.


 
U.S. Marines debark from LCP(L)s onto Guadalcanal on 7 August 1942.

Battle of Savo Island

مقال رئيسي: Battle of Savo Island

Initial operations

 
Initial U.S. Marine defenses around the airstrip at Lunga Point, Guadalcanal, 12 August 1942
 
Map showing the U.S. Marine attacks west of the Matanikau River on 19 August

The Goettge Patrol

مقال رئيسي: Frank Goettge


Battle of the Tenaru

مقال رئيسي: Battle of the Tenaru
 
Dead Japanese soldiers on the sandbar at the mouth of Alligator Creek, Guadalcanal after the Battle of the Tenaru.

Battle of the Eastern Solomons

مقال رئيسي: Battle of the Eastern Solomons


Air battles over Henderson Field and strengthening of the Lunga defenses

 
U.S. Marine Grumman F4F Wildcats from Henderson Field preparing to attack incoming Japanese aircraft in late August or early September 1942.

Tokyo Express

مقال رئيسي: Tokyo Express
 
Japanese troops load onto a destroyer for a "Tokyo Express" run to Guadalcanal


Battle of Edson's Ridge

مقال رئيسي: Battle of Edson's Ridge
 
U.S. Marine Lieutenant Colonel Merritt A. Edson (here photographed as a major general) who led Marine forces in the Battle of Edson's Ridge


 
Map of the Lunga perimeter on Guadalcanal showing the approach routes of the Japanese forces and the locations of the Japanese attacks during the battle. Oka's attacks were in the west (left), the Kuma Battalion attacked from the east (right) and the Center Body attacked "Edson's Ridge" (Lunga Ridge) in the lower center of the map.


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Reinforcement

 
The U.S. carrier Wasp burns after being hit by Japanese submarine torpedoes on 15 September.

Actions along the Matanikau

مقال رئيسي: Actions along the Matanikau
 
A U.S. Marine patrol crosses the Matanikau River in September 1942.


Battle of Cape Esperance

مقال رئيسي: Battle of Cape Esperance


Henderson Field


 
Japanese cargo ship destroyed at Tassafaronga by CAF aircraft on 15 October.


Battle for Henderson Field

مقال رئيسي: Battle for Henderson Field


 
Map of the battle, 23–26 October. Sumiyoshi's forces attack in the west at the Matanikau (left) while Maruyama's 2nd division attacks the Lunga perimeter from the south (right)
 
A U.S. 11th Marines 75mm pack howitzer and crew

Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands

 
يوإس‌إس Hornet is torpedoed and fatally damaged by a Japanese carrier aircraft on 26 October.

November land actions

 
U.S. Marines drag the bodies of dead Japanese soldiers from their bunker in the Point Cruz area after the battle in early November.


معركة گوادالكانال البحرية

 
U.S. Rear Admiral Daniel J. Callaghan (pictured here as a Captain)
 
The U.S. battleship Washington fires at the Japanese battleship Kirishima

Battle of Tassafaronga

مقال رئيسي: Battle of Tassafaronga
 
Raizo Tanaka

قرار اليابان بالانسحاب

مقال رئيسي: العملية كى


Battle of Mount Austen, the Galloping Horse, and the Sea Horse

 
U.S. Army Major General Alexander Patch (center) succeeds Vandegrift (right) on 9 December 1942. Colonel Richard H. Jeschke, Commander of 8th Marines on the left.
 
يوإس‌إس Chicago sinking on 30 January during the Battle of Rennell Island.


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الأعقاب

 
Allied commanders assemble on Guadalcanal in August 1943 to plan the next Allied offensive against the Japanese in the Solomons as part of Operation Cartwheel.


الأهمية

 
Henderson Field in August 1944.


انظر أيضاً

الهامش

  1. ^ Zimmerman, pp. 173–175 documents the participation by native Solomon Islanders in the campaign [1].
  2. ^ Jersey, pp. 356–358. Assisting the Americans in the latter stages of campaign were Fijiian commandos led by officers and non-commissioned officers from the New Zealand Expeditionary Force.
  3. ^ Garamone, Jim (9 November 2010). "Mullen Thanks Tonga for Steadfast Support". U.S. Navy. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
  4. ^ Frank, pp. 57, 619–621; and Rottman, p. 64. Approximately 20,000 U.S. Marines and 40,000 U.S. Army troops were deployed on Guadalcanal at different times during the campaign.
  5. ^ Rottman, p. 65. 31,400 men Imperial Japanese Army and 4,800 men Imperial Japanese Navy troops were deployed to Guadalcanal during the campaign. Jersey claims that 50,000 total Japanese army and navy troops were sent to Guadalcanal and that most of the original naval garrison of 1,000–2,000 men was successfully evacuated in November and December 1942 by Tokyo Express warships (Jersey, pp. 348–350).
  6. ^ The USMC History Division states that the US ground forces (Army and Marine Corps) suffered 4,709 total wounded. Marine air units add another 127 to this figure. Frank pg. 644 notes that the Bureau of Personnel, World War II Casualty List, Books 2 and 3, Naval Historical Center, Washington, D.C. lists US Navy wounded over the course of the campaign as 2,953, but this number appears to be an understatement.
  7. ^ Frank, pp. 598–618; and Lundstrom, p. 456. 85 Australians were killed in the Battle of Savo Island. Total Solomon Islander deaths are unknown. Most of the rest, if not all, of those killed were American. Numbers include personnel killed by all causes including combat, disease, and accidents. Losses include 1,768 dead (ground), 4,911 dead (naval), and 420 dead (aircrew). Four U.S. aircrew were captured by the Japanese during the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands and survived their captivity. An unknown number of other U.S. ground, naval, and aircrew personnel were, according to Japanese records, captured by Japanese forces during the campaign but did not survive their captivity and the dates and manners of most of their deaths are unknown (Jersey, pp. 346, 449). Captured Japanese documents revealed that two captured Marine scouts had been tied to trees and then vivisected while still alive and conscious by an army surgeon as a medical demonstration (Clemens, p. 295). Ships sunk includes both warships and "large" auxiliaries. Aircraft destroyed includes both combat and operational losses.
  8. ^ Cowdrey (1994) pg. 71, "Of the 19,200 dead, only 8,500 were 'killed in actual combat,' the majority perishing by malnutrition, malaria, diarrhea, and beriberi." Naval personnel deaths both on land and at sea are not factored into this total.
  9. ^ Frank, pp. 598–618, Shaw, p. 52, and Rottman, p. 65. Numbers include personnel killed by all causes including combat, disease, and accidents. Losses include 24,600–25,600 dead (ground), 3,543 dead (naval), and 2,300 dead (aircrew). Most of the captured personnel were Korean slave laborers assigned to Japanese naval construction units. Ships sunk includes warships and "large" auxiliaries. Aircraft destroyed includes both combat and operational losses.
  10. ^ Parshall, Jon. "Title". combinedfleet.com. Retrieved 23 September 2016.

المراجع

الكتب

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الوب

للاستزادة

الكتب

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الوب

Audio/visual

وصلات خارجية


Coordinates: 9°26′44″S 160°01′13″E / 9.44556°S 160.02028°E / -9.44556; 160.02028

[[تصنيف:معارك الحرب العالمية الثانية التي شاركت فيها المملكة المتحدة ]]