يالوڤا

(تم التحويل من يالوفا)

مدينة يالوفا هي عاصمة محافظة يالوفا تقع في شمال غرب تركيا ويبلغ تعداد سكانها حوالي 70,118 نسمة.

Yalova
Yalova is located in تركيا
Yalova
Yalova
الإحداثيات: 40°39′20″N 29°16′30″E / 40.65556°N 29.27500°E / 40.65556; 29.27500Coordinates: 40°39′20″N 29°16′30″E / 40.65556°N 29.27500°E / 40.65556; 29.27500
CountryTurkey
ProvinceYalova
المساحة
 • District166٫85 كم² (64٫42 ميل²)
التعداد
 (2012)[2]
 • Urban
102٬874
 • District
121٬479
 • كثافة District730/km2 (1٬900/sq mi)
الموقع الإلكترونيwww.yalova.bel.tr
Yalova Turkey Provinces locator.gif

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تاريخ

 
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk with Ali Fethi Okyar and Okyar's daughter in Yalova, on August 13, 1930


يالوڤا القديمة

The first settlement in the region dates back to the Prehistoric Period, in around 3000 BC. The Hittites ruled the region in the 21st century BC,[بحاجة لمصدر] followed by the Phrygians in the 13th century BC. The region was conquered by the Romans in 74 BC.

In Antiquity and for most of the Middle Ages, the town was known as Pylae or Pylai (باليونانية: Πύλαι), which is Greek for "gates", as it was at the start of one of the main routes leading into Asia for whomever crossed the Sea of Marmara from Europe.[3]

العصور الوسطى

In the Byzantine period the town remained of some importance due to its geographic location, and emperors frequently used it as a disembarkation point from Constantinople. Thus Emperor Heraclius landed here in 622, at the beginning of his counter-offensive against the Persians, and Romanos IV Diogenes did the same in 1071, on his way to the Battle of Manzikert.[3] In the 9th century, the town was also the site of one of the beacons that transmitted news from the frontier with the Abbasid Caliphate, and included an imperial hostel for travellers. In the late 10th century, however, Leo of Synada described Pylae as little more than a village, where cattle, horses, pigs and other animals were gathered to be shipped to Constantinople.[3]

The town and the surrounding district were raided by the Seljuk Turks after Manzikert, but soon recovered. In 1147, Greek refugees from Phrygia were settled there. In 1199 charter of privileges to Venetian merchants, it is attested along with neighbouring Pythia Therma as a separate fiscal district (episkepsis), and was a separate province by the time of the Fourth Crusade (1204).[3] Following the fall of Constantinople to the Crusaders, Pylae formed part of the Empire of Nicaea, and served as the main port for Nicaea itself.[3] Pylae remained in Byzantine hands until ca. 1302, when Turkish attacks grew in intensity, forcing much of the population to abandon it and seek refuge in the Princes' Islands.[3]

الحديث

Shortly after, Yalova was incorporated into the territory of the Ottoman Empire.

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk occasionally lived in Yalova in his final years. In one of his speeches he famously said: "Yalova is my city."[بحاجة لمصدر]

المعالم السياحية

 
Tourists at the Sudüşen Waterfall, near Termal, Yalova

الطقس

Yalova has a borderline mediterranean/humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification: Csa/Cfa), with cold winters and hot, humid summers.

بيانات مناخ يالوڤا
الشهر يناير فبراير مارس أبريل مايو يونيو يوليو أغسطس سبتمبر اكتوبر نوفمبر ديسمبر العام
العظمى القياسية °س (°ف) 25.1
(77.2)
27.2
(81)
31.4
(88.5)
36.5
(97.7)
34.2
(93.6)
42.1
(107.8)
45.4
(113.7)
40.0
(104)
37.5
(99.5)
36.6
(97.9)
29.0
(84.2)
27.4
(81.3)
45٫4
(113٫7)
العظمى المتوسطة °س (°ف) 10.3
(50.5)
10.5
(50.9)
12.7
(54.9)
17.2
(63)
21.7
(71.1)
26.4
(79.5)
28.8
(83.8)
28.9
(84)
25.4
(77.7)
20.7
(69.3)
15.8
(60.4)
12.0
(53.6)
19٫2
(66٫56)
الصغرى المتوسطة °س (°ف) 3.3
(37.9)
3.1
(37.6)
4.5
(40.1)
8.0
(46.4)
11.9
(53.4)
15.9
(60.6)
18.0
(64.4)
18.3
(64.9)
15.0
(59)
11.8
(53.2)
7.7
(45.9)
5.2
(41.4)
10٫23
(50٫41)
الصغرى القياسية °س (°ف) -5.9
(21.4)
-11.0
(12.2)
-7.4
(18.7)
-1.6
(29.1)
1.2
(34.2)
8.0
(46.4)
10.8
(51.4)
10.6
(51.1)
6.2
(43.2)
1.3
(34.3)
-3.2
(26.2)
-5.6
(21.9)
−11
(12٫2)
هطول mm (inches) 86.9
(3.421)
69.8
(2.748)
69.5
(2.736)
53.0
(2.087)
33.8
(1.331)
41.7
(1.642)
22.4
(0.882)
36.9
(1.453)
52.9
(2.083)
89.0
(3.504)
89.2
(3.512)
107.2
(4.22)
752٫3
(29٫618)
Avg. rainy days 15.6 13.3 12.3 11.1 7.6 6.0 4.2 4.3 6.3 10.8 12.6 14.5 118٫6
Sunshine hours 58.9 86.8 133.3 171 235.6 273 294.5 279 222 155 78 46.5 2٬033٫6
Source: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü [4]

العلاقات الدولية


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البلدات التوأم—المدن الشقيقة

Yalova is twinned with:[5]

since 2000[6]

الهامش

  1. ^ "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05.
  2. ^ "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
  3. ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح Foss, Clive (1991). "Pylai". In Kazhdan, Alexander (ed.). The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. p. 1760. ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6. More than one of |encyclopedia= and |encyclopedia= specified (help)
  4. ^ http://www.dmi.gov.tr/veridegerlendirme/il-ve-ilceler-istatistik.aspx?m=YALOVA
  5. ^ Administration
  6. ^ "Batumi - Twin Towns & Sister Cities". Batumi City Hall. Archived from the original on 2012-05-04. Retrieved 2013-08-10.

وصلات خارجية



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