همدان

همدان[1] (Hamadān ؛ pronounced [Hæmædɒːn] ( استمع)) أو Hamedān (فارسية: همدان, Hamadān) (الفارسية القديمة: Haŋgmetana, Ecbatana) هي المدينة عاصمة محافظة همدان في غرب إيران. وفي تعداد 2006، بلغ عدد سكانها 473,149، في 127,812 عائلة.[2]

همدان

همدان

Hamadan
city
Ancient names: Ecbatana، Hangmatana
الختم الرسمي لـ همدان
Seal
همدان is located in إيران
همدان
همدان
همدان في إيران
الإحداثيات: 34°48′N 48°31′E / 34.800°N 48.517°E / 34.800; 48.517Coordinates: 34°48′N 48°31′E / 34.800°N 48.517°E / 34.800; 48.517
اليلد إيران
المحافظةهمدان
المقاطعةهمدان
بخشالمركزي
المنسوب
1٬850 m (6٬069 ft)
التعداد
 (2006)
 • الإجمالي473٬149
 • الترتيب14th in Iran
منطقة التوقيتUTC+3:30 (IRST)
 • الصيف (التوقيت الصيفي)UTC+4:30 (IRDT)
الموقع الإلكترونيhamedan.ir

Hamadan is believed to be among the oldest Iranian cities and one of the oldest in the world. It is possible that it was occupied by the Assyrians in 1100 BCE; the Ancient Greek historian, Herodotus، states that it was the capital of the Medes، حوالي 700 ق.م..

Hamadan has a green mountainous area in the foothills of the 3,574-meter Alvand Mountain, in the midwest part of Iran. The city is 1,850 meters above sea level.

The special nature of this old city and its historic sites attract tourists during the summer to this city, located approximately 360 kiloمترs (1,181,100 قدم) southwest of Tehran.

The main symbols of this city are the Ganj Nameh inscription, the Avicenna monument and the Baba Taher monument. The majority of the population is Persian;[3][4][5]

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التاريخ

 
16th century map of Hamadan
 
The Ganjnameh، a cuneiform inscription in Hamadan
 
Silver Drachma of Parthian king Mithridates II made in Ecbatan mint

According to Clifford Edmund Bosworth، "Hamadan is a very old city. It may conceivably, but improbably, be mentioned in cuneiform texts from ca. 1100 BC, the time of Assyrian King Tiglath-pilesar I, but is certainly mentioned by Herodotus (i.98) who says that the king of Media Diokes built the city of Agbatana or Ekbatana in the 7th century BC."[6]

Hamadan was established by the Medes and was the capital of the Median Empire. It then became one of several capital cities of the Achaemenid Dynasty.

Hamadan is mentioned in the biblical book of Ezra as the place where a scroll was found giving the Jews permission from King Darius to rebuild the temple in Jerusalem. (Ezra 6:2). Its ancient name of Ecbatana is used in the Ezra text. Because it was a mile above sea level, it was a good place to preserve leather documents.

During the Parthian era, Ctesiphon was the capital of the country, and Hamadan the summer capital and residence of the Parthian rulers. After the Parthians, the Sassanids constructed their summer palaces in Hamadan. In the year 633 the battle of Nahavand took place and Hamadan fell into the hands of the Muslim Arabs.

During the Buwayhids، the city suffered much damage. In the 11th century, the Seljuks shifted their capital from Baghdad to Hamadan. The city of Hamadan, its fortunes following the rise and fall of regional powers, was completely destroyed during the Timurid invasion. During the Safavid era, the city thrived. Thereafter, in the 18th century, Hamadan was surrendered to the Ottomans، but due to the work of Nader Shah e Afshar، Hamadan was cleared of invaders and, as a result of a peace treaty between Iran and the Ottomans, it was returned to Iran. Hamadan stands on the Silk Road، and even in recent centuries the city enjoyed strong commerce and trade as a result of its location on the main road network in the western region of Persia and Iran.

During الحرب العالمية الأولى، the city was the scene of heavy fighting between Russian and Turko-German forces. It was occupied by both armies, and finally by the British, before it was returned to control of the Iranian government at the end of the war in 1918.


الطقس

Hamadan province lies in a temperate mountainous region to the east of Zagros. The vast plains of the north and northeast of the province are influenced by strong winds, that almost last throughout the year.

 
Hamadan spot (light blue in center) in Hamadan province topography map

The various air currents of this region are: the north and north west winds of the spring and winter seasons, which are usually humid and bring rainfall. The west-east air currents that blow in the autumn, and the local winds that develop due to difference in air-pressure between the elevated areas and the plains, like the blind wind of the Asad Abad region.

بيانات مناخ همدان
الشهر يناير فبراير مارس أبريل مايو يونيو يوليو أغسطس سبتمبر اكتوبر نوفمبر ديسمبر العام
العظمى القياسية °س (°ف) 17.0
(62.6)
19.0
(66.2)
25.0
(77)
28.0
(82.4)
33.0
(91.4)
39.0
(102.2)
40.6
(105.1)
39.4
(102.9)
36.4
(97.5)
30.0
(86)
23.0
(73.4)
18.8
(65.8)
40٫6
(105٫1)
العظمى المتوسطة °س (°ف) 2.0
(35.6)
4.3
(39.7)
11.5
(52.7)
18.1
(64.6)
23.9
(75)
30.9
(87.6)
34.9
(94.8)
34.2
(93.6)
29.8
(85.6)
21.9
(71.4)
13.7
(56.7)
5.9
(42.6)
19٫26
(66٫67)
المتوسط اليومي °س (°ف) -4.6
(23.7)
-2.2
(28)
4.5
(40.1)
10.4
(50.7)
15.5
(59.9)
21.3
(70.3)
25.3
(77.5)
24.3
(75.7)
19.0
(66.2)
12.1
(53.8)
5.3
(41.5)
-0.9
(30.4)
10٫83
(51٫5)
الصغرى المتوسطة °س (°ف) -10.5
(13.1)
-8.2
(17.2)
-2.1
(28.2)
2.7
(36.9)
6.4
(43.5)
9.8
(49.6)
13.9
(57)
12.8
(55)
7.0
(44.6)
2.5
(36.5)
-2.1
(28.2)
-6.6
(20.1)
2٫13
(35٫84)
الصغرى القياسية °س (°ف) −34.0
(-29)
-33.0
(-27.4)
−21.0
(-6)
-12.0
(10.4)
-3.0
(26.6)
2.0
(35.6)
7.0
(44.6)
4.0
(39.2)
-4.0
(24.8)
-7.0
(19.4)
−14.5
(5.9)
−29.0
(-20)
هطول mm (inches) 46.3
(1.823)
43.6
(1.717)
49.4
(1.945)
49.8
(1.961)
37.8
(1.488)
3.7
(0.146)
2.0
(0.079)
1.8
(0.071)
0.8
(0.031)
20.7
(0.815)
26.9
(1.059)
40.9
(1.61)
323٫7
(12٫744)
Humidity 76 73 64 56 50 36 31 31 34 48 61 73 52٫8
Avg. rainy days 11.6 11.1 12.4 12.1 9.5 2.0 1.3 1.6 1.0 5.6 6.8 10.1 85٫1
Avg. snowy days 8.8 8.2 4.2 0.6 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 0.9 6.9 29٫8
Sunshine hours 131.8 137.1 174.5 199.6 258.5 341.8 342.7 322.2 295.6 234.3 183.1 135.3 2٬756٫5
Source: NOAA (1961-1990)[7]

Hamadan is in the vicinity of the Alvand mountains and has a dry summer continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dsa), in transition with a cold semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSk), with snowy winters. In fact, it is one of the coldest cities in Iran. The temperature may drop below −30 °م (−22 °ف) on the coldest days. Heavy snowfall is common during winter and this can persist for periods of up to two months. During the short summer, the weather is mild, pleasant, and mostly sunny.

 
Heydare, Hamadan
 
Alvand Mountain
 
Mishan, a plain of Alvand Mountain

منظر پانورامي

Hamadan at night


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الناس

According to the survey of 1997, the population of the province of Hamadan was 1,677,957.[8] Based on official statistics of 1997, the population of Hamadan county was 563,444 people. The majority of population are Persians with a sizeable minority of Azeris,[9] and a small group of Jews.[10]

الثقافة

 
The Saint Mary Church of Hamadan

Hamadan is home to many poets and cultural celebrities. The city is also said to be among the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities.

Hamadan has always been well known for handicrafts like leather, ceramic, and carpets.

Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization lists 207 sites of historical and cultural significance in the city of Hamadan alone.

A tomb believed by some to hold the remains of tomb the biblical Esther and her cousin Mordechai is located in Hamadan.

The scientist and writer known in the west as Avicenna (Abu Ali Sina) is buried in Hamadan. The 11th-century Iranian poet Baba Taher is also interred in Hamadan.

This city is also the birthplace of Badi' al-Zaman al-Hamadani، author of the Maqamat.

معرض

الرياضة

PAS Hamedan F.C. were founded on June 9, 2007 after the dissolution of PAS Tehran F.C.. The team, along with Alvand Hamedan F.C.، currently participates in the Azadegan League.

Some sport complexes in this city include: Qods Stadium، Shahid Mofatteh Stadium، Takhti Sport Complex and the National Stadium of Hamadan.

التعليم

 
University of Technology, in Hamadan

Before the Persian Constitutional Revolution، education in Hamadan was limited to some Maktab Houses and theological schools. Fakhrie Mozafari School was the first modern school of Hamadan, which was built after that revolution. Alliance and Lazarist were also the first modern schools founded by foreign institutions in Hamadan.

Some of the popular universities in Hamadan include:

مشاهير همدان

 
Fazlollah Zahedi and his family

العلاقات الدولية

بلدات توأم – مدن شقيقة

Hamadan is twinned with:

انظر أيضاً

الهامش

  1. ^ Multiple Authors (April 18, 2012). "HAMADĀN". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 18 April 2015.
  2. ^ "تعداد جمهورية إيران الإسلامية 1385 (2006)". جمهورية إيران الإسلامية. Archived from the original (Excel) on 2011-11-11.
  3. ^ Introduction: Hamedan Province
  4. ^ Mohammad Jalal Abbasi-Shavazi, Peter McDonald, Meimanat Hosseini-Chavoshi, "The Fertility Transition in Iran: Revolution and Reproduction", Springer, 2009. pp 100-101: "The first category is 'Central' where the majority of people are Persian speaking ethnic Fars (provinces of Fars, Hamedan, Isfahan, Markazi, Qazvin, Qom, Semnan, Yazd and Tehran..."
  5. ^ (Parviz Aḏkāʾi and EIr, HAMADĀN i. GEOGRAPHY in Encyclopædia Iranica:"Languages spoken. Hamadān has been a crossroads of civilizations for millennia and a mosaic of cultures and dialects live there side by side. The main language spoken, especially in the provincial capital and its surroundings, is Persian, which is also the lingua franca in other regions. In the northern parts of the province, however, the language mostly spoken is Azeri Turkish, while in the northwest and west, near the provinces of Kurdistan and Kermānšāhān, people mostly speak Kurdish, while in some other cities such as Malāyer, Nehāvand, and Sāmen most people speak Lori and Lak (Faraji, p. 1296)."
  6. ^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (2008). Historic Cities of the Islamic World. Brill Academic Publishers. p. 151. ISBN 978-90-04-15388-2.
  7. ^ "Hamedan Nozheh Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
  8. ^ Official statistics from 1997 (1375) - Hamadan provinces - Population and ethnicites - Archive copy at the Internet Archive accessed on March 12, 2006. Replaced with Archive link on Feb 22, 2010.
  9. ^ Hamadan (Iran) - Encyclopædia Britannica
  10. ^ Hamadan - LookLex Encyclopaedia
  11. ^ http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/golgun
  12. ^ در ششمین همایش بوعلی سینا در بخارا؛ «بخارا» زادگاه و «همدان» مدفن بوعلی‌سینا خواهرخوانده می‌شوند


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وصلات خارجية

سبقه
-
Capital of Median Empire
As "Ecbatana"

678–549 BCE
تبعه
-
سبقه
-
Capital of Achaemenid Empire (Persia)
As "Ecbatana"
Served as Summer Capital

550–330 BCE
تبعه
-
سبقه
Isfahan
Capital of Seljuq Empire (Persia)
(Western capital)

1118–1194
تبعه
-
سبقه
Isfahan
Capital of Iran (Persia)
1118–1194
تبعه
Gurganj

قالب:Hamadan County