محمد الثاني الفقيه، سلطان غرناطة

(تم التحويل من محمد الثاني من غرناطة)

محمد الثاني الفقيه (1234 - 1302) كان ابن ووريث محمد بن الأحمر وثاني حكام إمارة غرناطة العرب النصريين في الأندلس في شبه جزيرة أيبريا.

محمد الثاني
سلطان غرناطة
العهد22 يناير 1273 – 8 أبريل 1302
سبقهمحمد الأول
تبعهمحمد الثالث
وُلِد1235ح. 1235
توفي8 أبريل 1302
غرناطة
الأنجالمحمد الثالث، نصر, فاطمة
البيتبنو نصر
الأبمحمد الأول
الأمعائشة[1]
الديانةالإسلام

وُلِد محمد الثاني في منطقة أرخونو في مقاطعة جيان الأندلسية في 1234 وخلف أباه في 1273. وكان قد عمل وزيراً أثناء سلطنة والده. لـُقـِّب "بالفقيه" لورعه، وقد واصل عمارة قصر الحمراء. وكان أديباً وكثيراً ما كان يكتب رسائل الدولة بنفسه. وقد أصبح ابن عمه أبو سعيد فرج مستشاراً موثوقاً به وتزوج أحد بنات محمد الثاني الفقيه، الأميرة فاطمة.

After he took the throne, he negotiated a treaty with Alfonso X of Castile, in which Castile agreed to end support for the Banu Ashqilula in exchange for payments. When Castile accepted the money but maintained its support for the Banu Ashqilula, Muhammad turned towards Abu Yusuf of the Marinids. The Marinids sent a successful expedition against Castile, but relations soured when the Marinids treated the Banu Ashqilula as Muhammad's equals. In 1279, through diplomatic manoeuvring, Muhammad regained Málaga, formerly the centre of Banu Ashqilula power. In 1280, his diplomacy backfired when Granada faced simultaneous attacks from Castile, the Marinids and the Banu Ashqilula. Attacked by his more powerful neighbours, Muhammad exploited the rift between Alfonso and his son Sancho, as well as receiving help from Volunteers of the Faith, soldiers recruited from North Africa. The threat subsided when Alfonso died in 1284 and Abu Yusuf in 1286; their successors (Sancho and Abu Yaqub, respectively) were preoccupied with domestic matters. In 1288 the Banu Ashqilula emigrated to North Africa at Abu Yaqub's invitation, removing Muhammad's biggest domestic concern. In 1292, Granada helped Castile take Tarifa from the Marinids on the understanding that the town would be traded to Granada, but Sancho reneged on the promise. Muhammad II then switched to the Marinid side, but a Granadan–Marinid attempt to retake Tarifa in 1294 failed. In 1295, Sancho died and was succeeded by Ferdinand IV, a minor. Granada took advantage by conducting a successful campaign against Castile, taking Quesada and Alcaudete. Muhammad also planned a joint offensive with Aragon against Castile, but he died in 1302 before the operation took place.

During his 25 year rule, Muhammad consolidated the state founded by his father and implemented administrative and military reforms. He instituted the Nasrid royal protocol and the court chancery, organized the Volunteers of the Faith—troops recruited from North Africa—and increased the importance of the office of the vizier in the government. He also directed the construction of a series of strongholds in strategic positions throughout his frontiers, which formed the backbone of Granadan border defences in the centuries to come. He expanded the Alhambra palace and fortress complex, and increased the emirate's trade with Christian Europe, especially with traders from Genoa and Pisa. His epithet al-Faqih reflects his high education as well as his preference for surrounding himself with scholars and poets.

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النشأة

Muhammad was born in 633 AH (1235 or 1236 CE) to the Nasrid clan, which originated from the town of Arjona, then in Al-Andalus on the Iberian Peninsula.[2] According to the later Granadan historian and vizier Ibn al-Khatib, the clan—also known as Banu Nasr or Banu al-Ahmar—was descended from Sa'd ibn Ubadah, a prominent companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, from the Banu Khazraj tribe in Arabia; Sa'd's descendants migrated to Spain and settled in Arjona as farmers.[3] He had at least two older brothers, Faraj (b. 628 AH/1230 or 1231 CE) and Yusuf,[4] and two sisters named Mu'mina and Shams.[5] In 1232, his father Muhammad I established the independence of the town, and it later grew to a sizeable independent state in the south of Spain, centred on Granada after the loss of Arjona in 1244.[6] The Emirate of Granada became the last independent Muslim state in the Iberian peninsula.[6] In 1257, after the death of Faraj, Muhammad I declared his sons Muhammad and Yusuf as his new heirs.[7] On August of the same year, the younger Muhammad had his first son, the future Muhammad III.[8] He had another son, Nasr, and a daughter, Fatima.[9] Fatima would later marry his father's cousin Abu Said Faraj, and their descendants would be the future rulers of Granada, replacing the direct male line after the ousting of Nasr in 1314.[9] As heir, the future Muhammad II was involved in matters of state, including war and diplomacy.[10] He served as vizier for some time during his father's rule.[11] He became the sole heir after the death of Yusuf, who did not leave a descendant, during their father's lifetime.[1] By the time of his father's death in 1273, Muhammad II was aged 38 and an experienced statesman.[10]


الحكم: 1273–1302

شهد عهد محمد الثاني الفقية تواصل الحرب الأهلية بين أسرته وأسرة منافسة، أشقلولة، التي تحالفت مع نبلاء مسيحيين أهمهم نونيو گونزالث ده لارا في 1273. فعندما تمرد آخر حاكم من أشقلولة على مالقة، أبو محمد، استولى محمد الثاني الفقيه على المدينة في 1278. وفي 1278، مع هزيمة غرمائه، منح محمد الثاني حكم مالقة لابن عمه وصهره، أبو سعيد فرج. ولاحقاً، هربت معظم أسرة أشقلولة إلى المغرب في عام 1279.

خلفية

 
خريطة إمارة غرناطة النصرية. التخوم تغيرت مع الوقت والخريطة قد لا تناظر الأراضي التي كان يسيطر عليها محمد الثاني في وقتٍ ما أثناء عهده. Green/light green: غرناطة.
 
غرناطة (حدود بنية في جنوب أيبيريا) وجيرانها في 1360 (الحدود قد تختلف قليلاً من تلك في عهد محمد الثاني).

Granada was located between two larger neighbours: the Christian kingdom of Castile to the north and the Muslim Marinid state centred in today's Morocco to the south. Castile's objectives were to keep Granada in check, prevent it from conducting raids and force it to continue paying tribute.[12] The tribute amount was 300,000 maravedís—about half of Granada's revenue—and represented an important source of income for Castile, though Granada often suspended payments.[13][14] On the other hand, the Marinids, following in the footsteps of their Almohad and Almoravid predecessors, saw the protection of the Muslims in the Iberian peninsula, as well as participation in jihad against the Christian expansion there—the so-called "Reconquista"—as their duty as Muslims and as a way to increase their legitimacy.[15][16] By the time of Muhammad II's rule, Granada's main objective was to maintain independence from both of these powers, preserve the balance of power, prevent an alliance between them, and control towns on the Castilian frontiers as well as ports on the Strait of Gibraltar, such as Algeciras, Tarifa, and Gibraltar.[12][17] The contest over control of these strategically important ports, which controlled passage to and from North Africa,[18] lasted until the mid-14th century, in what modern historians call the "Battle of the Strait" (Batalla del Estrecho).[16]

Besides these two foreign powers, Granada was also challenged by the Banu Ashqilula, another Arjona clan which was initially allied with the Nasrids, and whose military strength had helped establish the kingdom. They rebelled against Muhammad I from at least 1266, and received assistance from Castile, then under the rule of Alfonso X, who wanted to keep Granada in check. Alfonso sent a force under Nuño González de Lara to help the Banu Ashqilula, but the Castilian nobleman had his own grievances against Alfonso;[19] Nuño González ended up rebelling against his king, and was welcomed by Muhammad I.[17] In the beginning of Muhammad II's rule, the Banu Ashqilula's territories included Málaga—the second biggest city in the emirate after Granada and an important Mediterranean port—as well as Guadix.[20][21]

ارتقاء العرش والتفاوض مع ألفونسو العاشر

On 22 January 1273, Muhammad I fell from a horse and died of his injuries. The younger Muhammad took the throne as Muhammad II. As he was the designated heir, the transition of power went smoothly. His first order of business was to deal with the Banu Ashqilula rebellion and the Castilian rebels who had been allied to his father and welcomed in Granadan territories. Relations with the Castilian rebels, who were led by Nuño González and had been useful in checking both Castile and the Banu Ashqilula, weakened as both sides were concerned about losing each other's support after the succession. Alfonso was also interested in reconciling with some of the rebels.[17]

Muhammad II then entered into negotiations with Alfonso—if he could secure Castile's alliance, he would not need to worry about losing the support of the rebels.[17] In late 1273, he and some of the rebel leaders visited Alfonso at his court in Seville, where they were welcomed with honour. Alfonso agreed to Granada's demands—to end his support for the Banu Ashqilula—in exchange for Muhammad's promise to be Alfonso's vassal, to pay 300,000 maravedís each year in tribute, and to end his co-operation with the rebels. However, once the payment was made, Alfonso reneged on his part of the bargain, maintained his support for the Banu Ashqilula and pressed Muhammad to grant them a truce.[22][23]

الغزوات المرينية على قشتالة

 
الموانئ الرئيسية المطلة على مضيق جبل طارق، والتي تحكمت في المرور بين شمال أفريقيا والأندلس. السيطرة السياسية في 1292: قشتالة (أحمر)، غرناطة (قرمزي)، و بنو مرين (أخضر)

ليأسه من ألفونسو، طلب محمد العون من المرينيين، الذين كان يحكمهم أبو يوسف يعقوب.[24] وبينما كان ألفونسو مسافراً ليلتقي الپاپا گريگوري العاشر، تاركاً مُلكـَه تحت إمرة ولي عهده فرديناند دلا سردا،[25] أرسل محمد رسلاً إلى البلاط المريني.[24] وكان أبو يوسف قد أعرب عن رغبته في قتال المسيحيين في اسبانيا منذ 1245، والآن وقد سيطر على عاصمة الموحدين السابقة مراكش ووحد معظم المغرب، فقد توفرت لديه القدرة والفرصة ليفعل ذلك.[20] وفي أبريل 1275 جمع أبو يوسف جيشاً ضم 5,000 فارس تحت قيادة ابنه، أبو زيان منديل.[24][26] وبعد ثلاثة أشهر، عبر أبو زيان مضيق جبل طارق، وهبط في طريفة واستولى على البلدة.[24] وسرعان ما انشق والي الجزيرة الخضراء عن غرناطة وسلّم البلدة لأبي زيان.[26] أسس الأمير المريني رأس جسر بين طريفة والجزيرة الخضراء، وبدأ في الإغارة على الأراضي القشتالية حتى خريز.[24] وأثناء الإبرار، هاجم محمد الثاني بني أشقلولة في مالقة في يونيو 1275، إلا أنهم صدوه.[26] زحف فرديناند دلا سردا لملاقاة القوات المسلمة، ولكنه توفي في 25 يوليو في ڤياريـال ، تاركاً قشتالة بقيادة مزعزعة.[20]


حملات طريفة

 
Muhammad II helped Sancho IV take Tarifa from the Marinids, but the Castilian king then refused to yield the town to Muhammad as promised.
Picture: A statue commemorating Sancho's taking of Tarifa.

The Marinids retained outposts in Iberia, including Tarifa, an important port town on the Strait of Gibraltar. In 1290, Muhammad came to an arrangement with Sancho and the ruler of Tlemcen. Castile would attack Tarifa, Granada would attack other Marinid possessions, and Tlemcen would open hostilities against the Marinids in North Africa.[27] According to the agreement, Castile would then hand Tarifa to Granada in exchange for six border fortresses.[28] In November and December 1291, James II of Aragon met Sancho and agreed to join the war against the Marinids.[29] In October 1292 Castile, with assistance from Aragon's navy and supplied by Granada, succeeded in taking Tarifa.[30] Castile also took the six border fortresses from Granada as agreed, but refused to cede Tarifa even after Muhammad met with Sancho in Córdoba in December.[31][32] Granada, feeling cheated, then switched sides to the Marinids. Muhammad travelled to North Africa and met Abu Ya'qub at Tangier on 24 October, bearing many gifts and asking his friendship and forgiveness. Both monarchs agreed to an alliance against Castile.[33] In 1294, the Marinids and Granada unsuccessfully besieged Tarifa. The town would never again be in Muslim hands. After this failure, the Marinids decided to withdraw to North Africa. Granada proceeded to retake its former outposts, including Algeciras and—after some local resistance—Ronda.[31][32]

عائلته

كان لمحمد الثاني الفقيه، على الأقل، ثلاث أبناء: فرج، محمد الثالث ونصر، وهذا الأخير كان ابنه من جارية مسيحية.

السنوات الأخيرة ووفاته

 
Quesada, captured by Muhammad in 1295 and one of Granada's territorial gains during his reign.

In 1295, Sancho died and was succeeded by his nine-year-old son Ferdinand IV.[34] During his minority Castile was governed by a regency led by his uncle, Infante Henry.[34][35] His cousin, Alfonso de la Cerda made a rival claim for the throne, supported by James of Aragon.[36] Muhammad exploited this situation to strike at Castile: in late 1295 he captured Quesada and routed a Castilian army at the Battle of Iznalloz.[36] Ferdinand was also attacked by Aragon, Denis of Portugal, and his uncle, Infante John.[36] In 1296, Granada and Aragon concluded a pact of friendship and agreed to split their objectives: Murcia would go to Aragon and Andalusia to Granada.[35][36] In June 1296, Infante Henry made peace overtures to Muhammad, offering to hand over Tarifa, but this broke down when the town's commander, Alfonso Pérez de Guzmán, declared that he would not hand it over even if ordered to do so.[37][38] Late that year, Granadan forces defeated Infante Henry near Arjona and nearly captured him.[39] Henry's horse was captured, but Muhammad ordered it returned in a gesture of chivalry.[40]

توفي ثاني الحكام النصريين في 8 أبريل 1302، بعد ما زُعِم من أن ابنه محمد الثالث قام بسمه. وقد توفي بعد أن أنهى صلاة العصر وكان يبدو كما لوكان مختنقاً قبل الصلاة. وكان بعد ظهيرة ذلك اليوم قد تلقى كعكة من بيت ابنه محمد الثالث. وسرعان ما دُفِن محمد الثاني في حديقة السلطان بعد وفاته بالسم..


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حكمه وذكراه

 
A Nasrid-era watchtower in Huéscar. Muhammad II built a line of fortifications on the emirate's frontiers.

Muhammad built on the nascent state created by his father, and continued to secure his realm's independence by alternatively allying with other powers, especially Castile and the Marinids, and sometimes encouraging them to fight each other.[12][41] A sense of identity also emerged in the realm, united by religion (Islam), language (Arabic), and an awareness of an ever-present threat to its survival from its Romance-speaking Christian neighbours. Historian Ibn Khaldun commented that these ties served as a replacement for asabiyyah or tribal solidarity, which Ibn Khaldun thought was fundamental to the rise and fall of a state.[42]

Muhammad II was the true organiser of the Nasrid state with his reforms to the administration and the army.[43] His considerable legislative activity included the institution of the Nasrid royal protocol (rusūm al-mulk),[44] and of the court chancery (al-kitāba), in which the chief figure of his reign was the future vizier Abu Abdallah ibn al-Hakim.[45] His reign also saw the expansion and institutionalisation of the Volunteers of the Faith (also called ghazis in Arabic): soldiers recruited from North Africa to defend Granada against the Christians. Many of them were members of tribes or families which had been exiled from the Marinid state.[46] Some of them settled in the city of Granada, establishing the quarter of Zenete (named after the Berber tribe of Zenata),[46] and some in the western areas of the realm, such as Ronda and the surrounding area.[35] They received payments from the state, but often came into conflict with the locals in the areas they settled. When, in the early 1280s, Granada came into conflict with the Marinids, the Volunteers remained loyal and defended Granada against Castile, when it attacked at the same time.[47] Over time, the Volunteers became Granada's most important military force, numbering 10,000 at the end of Muhammad's rule and eclipsing Granada's locally recruited army. Their leader, the shaikh al-ghuzat, held an influential position in Granadan politics.[48] Different men were named as the shaikh by Muhammad at different points of his reign, including Ali ibn Abi Iyad ibn Abd al-Haqq, Tasfin ibn Mu'ti, Musa ibn Rahhu, Abd al-Haqq ibn Rahhu, and Ibrahim ibn Yahya.[49]

 
During his reign, Muhammad II steadily transformed the Alhambra from being largely a fortress to being a royal palace complex.

المراجع

  • Harvey, Leonard Patrick. Islamic Spain 1250 to 1500. University of Chicago Press, 1992.(Chapter 10 Muhammad II 1273-1302)
  • The Alhambra From the Ninth Century to Yusuf I (1354). vol. 1. مكتبة الساقي, 1997.
محمد الثاني الفقيه، سلطان غرناطة
فرع أصغر من بنو خزرج
وُلِد: 1234 توفي: 8 أبريل 1302
ألقاب ملكية
سبقه
محمد الأول بن نصر
سلطان غرناطة
1273-1302
تبعه
محمد الثالث
  1. ^ أ ب Boloix Gallardo 2017, p. 165.
  2. ^ Boloix Gallardo 2017, p. 164.
  3. ^ Harvey 1992, pp. 28–29.
  4. ^ Boloix Gallardo 2017, p. 38.
  5. ^ Boloix Gallardo 2017, p. 39.
  6. ^ أ ب Harvey 1992, pp. 39–40.
  7. ^ Harvey 1992, p. 33.
  8. ^ Boloix Gallardo 2017, p. 166.
  9. ^ أ ب Fernández-Puertas 1997, pp. 2–3.
  10. ^ أ ب Kennedy 2014, p. 279.
  11. ^ Arié 1973, p. 206.
  12. ^ أ ب ت Kennedy 2014, p. 280.
  13. ^ O'Callaghan 2011, p. 11.
  14. ^ O'Callaghan 2013, p. 456.
  15. ^ Kennedy 2014, p. 281.
  16. ^ أ ب Carrasco Manchado 2009, p. 401.
  17. ^ أ ب ت ث Harvey 1992, p. 151.
  18. ^ O'Callaghan 2011, p. 3.
  19. ^ Harvey 1992, pp. 38–39.
  20. ^ أ ب ت O'Callaghan 2011, p. 65.
  21. ^ Harvey 1992, p. 158.
  22. ^ Harvey 1992, p. 153.
  23. ^ Kennedy 2014, p. 284.
  24. ^ أ ب ت ث ج Harvey 1992, p. 154.
  25. ^ O'Callaghan 2011, pp. 62–63.
  26. ^ أ ب ت Arié 1973, p. 70.
  27. ^ Harvey 1992, pp. 159–160.
  28. ^ Harvey 1992, p. 160.
  29. ^ O'Callaghan 2011, pp. 97–98.
  30. ^ O'Callaghan 2011, p. 101.
  31. ^ أ ب Harvey 1992, pp. 161–162.
  32. ^ أ ب Kennedy 2014, pp. 284–285.
  33. ^ O'Callaghan 2011, p. 103.
  34. ^ أ ب O'Callaghan 2011, p. 112.
  35. ^ أ ب ت Harvey 1992, p. 162.
  36. ^ أ ب ت ث O'Callaghan 2011, p. 113.
  37. ^ O'Callaghan 2011, p. 114.
  38. ^ Harvey 1992, p. 163.
  39. ^ O'Callaghan 2011, pp. 114–115.
  40. ^ O'Callaghan 2011, p. 115.
  41. ^ Catlos 2018, p. 341.
  42. ^ Harvey 1992, pp. 163–164.
  43. ^ Carrasco Manchado 2009, p. 402.
  44. ^ Carrasco Manchado 2009, p. 429.
  45. ^ Carrasco Manchado 2009, p. 439.
  46. ^ أ ب Kennedy 2014, p. 282.
  47. ^ Harvey 1992, p. 159.
  48. ^ Kennedy 2014, pp. 282–283.
  49. ^ Arié 1973, p. 240.