Tao ( /d/, /t/) or Dao ( /d/ DOW; from بالصينية: پن‌ين: Dào [tɑ̂ʊ] ( استمع)) is a Chinese word signifying "way", "path", "route", "road" or sometimes more loosely "doctrine", "principle" or "holistic beliefs".[1] In the context of East Asian philosophy and East Asian religions, Tao is the natural order of the universe whose character one's human intuition must discern in order to realize the potential for individual wisdom. This intuitive knowing of "life" cannot be grasped as a concept; it is known through actual living experience of one's everyday being.

Laozi in the Tao Te Ching explains that the Tao is not a "name" for a "thing" but the underlying natural order of the Universe whose ultimate essence is difficult to circumscribe due to it being non-conceptual yet evident in one's being of aliveness.[بحاجة لمصدر] The Tao is "eternally nameless" (Tao Te Ching-32. Laozi) and to be distinguished from the countless "named" things which are considered to be its manifestations, the reality of life before its descriptions of it.

The Tao lends its name to the religious tradition (Wade–Giles, Tao Chiao; Pinyin, Daojiao) and philosophical tradition (Wade–Giles, Tao chia; Pinyin, Daojia) that are both referred to in English with the single term Taoism.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Description and uses of the concept

ملف:Pakua with frame.svg
The bagua, a symbol commonly used to represent the Tao and its pursuit.

The word "Tao" (道) has a variety of meanings in both ancient and modern Chinese language. Aside from its purely prosaic use to mean road, channel, path, principle, or similar,[2] the word has acquired a variety of differing and often confusing metaphorical, philosophical and religious uses. In most belief systems, the word is used symbolically in its sense of 'way' as the 'right' or 'proper' way of existence, or in the context of ongoing practices of attainment or of the full coming into being, or the state of enlightenment or spiritual perfection that is the outcome of such practices.[3]



See also

Notes

References

Citations

  1. ^ Dr Zai, J. Taoism and Science: Cosmology, Evolution, Morality, Health and more. Ultravisum, 2015.
  2. ^ DeFrancis (1996) p. 113.
  3. ^ LaFargue (1992), pp. 245–7.

Sources

  • Baxter, William H. A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology (Mouton de Gruyter, 1992).
  • Bodde, Derk & Fung, Yu-Lan. A short history of Chinese philosophy (Simon and Schuster, 1997). ISBN 0-684-83634-3.
  • Boodberg, Peter A. "Philological Notes on Chapter One of the Lao Tzu" (Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 1957, 20:598–618).
  • Cane, Eulalio Paul. Harmony: Radical Taoism Gently Applied (Trafford Publishing, 2002). ISBN 1-4122-4778-0.
  • Chang, Dr. Stephen T. The Great Tao. Tao Publishing, imprint of Tao Longevity LLC. 1985. ISBN 0-942196-01-5.
  • Ch'eng, Chung-Ying & Cheng, Zhongying. New dimensions of Confucian and Neo-Confucian philosophy (SUNY Press, 1991). ISBN 0-7914-0283-5.
  • Chan Wing-tsit. A Source Book in Chinese Philosophy (Princeton, 1963). ISBN 0-691-01964-9.
  • DeFrancis, John (ed.). ABC Chinese-English Dictionary: Alphabetically Based Computerized (ABC Chinese Dictionary) (University of Hawaii Press, 1996). ISBN 0-8248-1744-3.
  • DeFrancis, John, (ed.). ABC Chinese-English Comprehensive Dictionary. (University of Hawaii Press, 2003).
  • Dumoulin, Henrik (Heisig, James & Knitter, Paul; tr.). Zen Buddhism: a History: India and China (World Wisdom, 2005). ISBN 0-941532-89-5.
  • Fowler, Jeaneane. An introduction to the philosophy and religion of Taoism: pathways to immortality (Sussex Academic Press, 2005). ISBN 1-84519-085-8.
  • Hansen, Chad D. A Daoist Theory of Chinese Thought: A Philosophical Interpretation (Oxford University Press, 2000). ISBN 0-19-513419-2.
  • Hershock, Peter. Liberating intimacy: enlightenment and social virtuosity in Ch'an Buddhism (SUNY Press, 1996). ISBN 0-7914-2981-4.
  • Karlgren, Bernhard. Grammata Serica Recensa (Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, 1957).
  • Keller, Catherine. The Face of the Deep: A Theology of Becoming (Routledge, 2003). ISBN 0-415-25648-8.
  • Kirkland, Russell. Taoism: The Enduring Tradition (Routledge, 2004). ISBN 978-0-415-26321-4
  • Kohn, Livia. The Taoist experience (SUNY Press, 1993). ISBN 0-7914-1579-1.
  • Komjathy, Louis. Handbooks for Daoist Practice. 10 vols. Hong Kong: Yuen Yuen Institute, 2008.
  • LaFargue, Michael. Tao and Method: A Reasoned Approach to the Tao Te Ching (SUNY Press, 1994) ISBN 0-7914-1601-1.
  • LaFargue, Michael. The tao of the Tao te ching: a translation and commentary (SUNY Press, 1992). ISBN 0-7914-0986-4.
  • Lau, D. C., tr. The Analects (Lun yu), (Penguin, 1979).
  • Li Fanggui 李方桂. Shanggu yin yanjiu 上古音研究 (Tsinghua Journal of Chinese Studies 1971, 9:1–61). (صينية)
  • Liu, Da. The Tao and Chinese culture (Taylor & Francis, 1981). ISBN 0-7100-0841-4.
  • Mair, Victor H. Tao Te Ching: The Classic Book of Integrity and the Way, by Lao Tzu; an entirely new translation based on the recently discovered Ma-wang-tui manuscripts (Bantam Books, 1990).
  • Martinson, Paul Varo. A theology of world religions: Interpreting God, self, and world in Semitic, Indian, and Chinese thought (Augsburg Publishing House, 1987). ISBN 0-8066-2253-9.
  • Maspero, Henri. Translated by Frank A. Kierman, Jr. Taoism and Chinese Religion (University of Massachusetts Press, 1981). ISBN 0-87023-308-4.
  • Moeller, Hans-Georg. The Philosophy of the Daodejing. (Columbia University Press, 2006). ISBN 0-231-13679-X.
  • Pulleyblank, E.G. "Lexicon of Reconstructed Pronunciation in Early Middle Chinese, Late Middle Chinese, and Early Mandarin" (UBC Press, 1991).
  • Schuessler, Axel. ABC Etymological Dictionary of Old Chinese (University of Hawaii Press, 2007).
  • Sharot, Stephen. A Comparative Sociology of World Religions: virtuosos, priests, and popular religion (New York: NYU Press, 2001). ISBN 0-8147-9805-5.
  • Sterckx, Roel. Chinese Thought. From Confucius to Cook Ding. London: Penguin, 2019.
  • Taylor, Rodney Leon & Choy, Howard Yuen Fung. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Confucianism: N-Z, Volume 2 of The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Confucianism (Rosen Publishing Group, 2005). ISBN 0-8239-4081-0.
  • Watts, Alan Wilson. Tao: The Watercourse Way with Al Chung-liang Huang (Pantheon, 1977). ISBN 0-394-73311-8 .
  • Zhou Fagao (周法高). "Shanggu Hanyu he Han-Zangyu 上古漢語和漢藏語" (Journal of the Institute of Chinese Studies of the Chinese University of Hong Kong 1972 5:159–244). (صينية)

Further reading

External links