اللغات السلاڤية الجنوبية

The South Slavic languages are one of three branches of the Slavic languages. There are approximately 30 million speakers, mainly in the Balkans. These are separated geographically from speakers of the other two Slavic branches (West and East) by a belt of German, Hungarian and Romanian speakers. The first South Slavic language to be written (also the first attested Slavic language) was the variety spoken in Thessaloniki, now called Old Church Slavonic, in the ninth century. It is retained as a liturgical language in some South Slavic Orthodox churches in the form of various local Church Slavonic traditions.

South Slavic
التوزيع
الجغرافي:
Southeast Europe
التبويب اللغوي:الهندو-اوروپية
الأقسام:
ISO 639-5:zls
Glottolog:sout3147[1]
{{{mapalt}}}
██ Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language

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Classification

The South Slavic languages constitute a dialect continuum.[2][3] Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, and Montenegrin constitute a single dialect within this continuum.[4]

  • Eastern
    • Bulgarian – (ISO 639-1 code: bg; ISO 639-2 code: bul; SIL code: bul; Linguasphere: 53-AAA-hb)
    • Macedonian – (ISO 639-1 code: mk; ISO 639-2(B) code: mac; ISO 639-2(T) code: mkd; SIL code: mkd; Linguasphere: 53-AAA-ha)
    • Old Church Slavonic (extinct) – (ISO 639-1 code: cu; ISO 639-2 code: chu; SIL code: chu; Linguasphere: 53-AAA-a)
  • Western
    • Slovene (ISO 639-1 code: sl; ISO 639-2 code: slv; ISO 639-3 code: slv; Linguasphere: 53-AAA-f)
    • Kajkavian (ISO 639-3 code: kjv)
    • Chakavian (ISO 639-3 code: ckm)
    • Serbo-Croatian/Shtokavian (ISO 639-1 code: sh; ISO 639-2/3 code: hsb; SIL code: scr; Linguasphere: 53-AAA-g).
      There are four national standard languages based on the Eastern Herzegovinian dialect:
      • Serbian (ISO 639-1 code: sr; ISO 639-2/3 code: srp; SIL code: srp)
      • Croatian (ISO 639-1 code: hr; ISO 639-2/3 code: hrv; SIL code: hrv)
      • Bosnian (ISO 639-1 code: bs; ISO 639-2/3 code: bos; SIL code: bos)
      • Montenegrin (ISO 639-2/3 code: cnr; SIL code: cnr)


Linguistic prehistory

The Slavic languages are part of the Balto-Slavic group, which belongs to the Indo-European language family. The South Slavic languages have been considered a genetic node in Slavic studies: defined by a set of phonological, morphological and lexical innovations (isoglosses) which separate it from the Western and Eastern Slavic groups. That view, however, has been challenged in recent decades (see below).


Some innovations encompassing all South Slavic languages are shared with the Eastern Slavic group, but not the Western Slavic. These include:[5]

  1. Consistent application of Slavic second palatalization before Proto-Slavic *v
  2. Loss of *d and *t before Proto-Slavic *l
  3. Merger of Proto-Slavic *ś (resulting from the second and third palatalization) with *s

This is illustrated in the following table:

Late Proto-Slavic South Slavic West Slavic East Slavic
reconstruction meaning Old Church Slavonic Slovene Serbo-Croatian Bulgarian Macedonian Czech Slovak Polish Belarusian Russian Ukrainian
*gvězda star звѣзда zvezda zv(ij)ézda
зв(иј)е́зда
звезда ѕвезда hvězda hviezda gwiazda звязда звезда
(звѣзда)
звізда
*květъ flower, bloom цвѣтъ cvet cv(ij)ȇt
цв(иј)е̑т
цвете цвет květ kvet kwiat кветка цвет цвіт,
квітка
*ordlo plough рало ralo rȁlo
ра̏ло
рало рало rádlo radlo radło рала орало,
рало
рало
*vьśь all вьсь ves sȁv
са̏в
вси сиот vše všetok wszystkie весь весь весь


Dialectal classification

 
Balto-Slavic languages.

Eastern group

مقال رئيسي: Eastern South Slavic
 
Areas where Eastern South Slavic dialects are spoken:██ by a majority of speakers ██ by a minority.
 
Map of the big yus (*ǫ) isoglosses in Eastern South Slavic and eastern Torlakian according to the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences' atlas from 2001.[6] Pronunciation of man and tooth, derived from proto-words zǫbъ mǫžь on the map:


Bulgarian dialects

Macedonian dialects

  • Southeastern Macedonian dialects
  • Northern Macedonian (including three Torlakian dialects)
  • Western Macedonian dialects


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Torlakian dialect in Serbian spoken language

Transitional South Slavic languages

Torlakian dialect


المجموعة الغربية

العلاقات بين التنويعات

The table below illustrates relationships among the varieties of the western group of South Slavic languages:

Dialect Subdialect Bulgarian Macedonian Serbo-Croatian Slovene
Serbian Montenegrin Bosnian Croatian
Torlakian x x x
Shtokavian sr (Kosovo–Resava:Косовско-ресавски дијалекат|Kosovo–Resava dialect|Kosovo–Resava) x
Šumadija–Vojvodina x
Zeta–Raška x x x
Eastern Herzegovinian x x x x
sr (Eastern Bosnian:Источнобосански дијалекат|Eastern Bosnian dialect|Eastern Bosnian) x x
sr (Younger Ikavian:Млађи икавски дијалекат|Younger Ikavian dialect|Younger Ikavian) x x
Slavonian x
Chakavian x
Kajkavian x x

اللهجات الشتوكاڤية


اللهجات السلوڤينية

مقارنة

The table below compares grammatical and phonological innovations. The similarity of Kajkavian and Slovenian is apparent.

Western South Slavic isoglosses
Slovene Kajkavian Chakavian Shtokavian
Acute > neoacute nonfinally Most dialects
Loss of Proto-Slavic tone Some dialects Neoshtokavian
u- > vu- Some dialects Yes
ǫ > o Yes Yes
-ojo > -o in instrumental singular Yes Yes
ć > č Most dialects Yes
Neocircumflex Yes Yes
Loss of vocative Yes Yes Some dialects
Final devoicing Most dialects Yes Yes
đ > j Yes Yes Yes
žV > rV Yes Yes Yes Western
Final -m > -n Some dialects Yes
ľ, ň > l, n Most dialects Yes
jd, jt > đ, ć Yes Yes
ř > r Yes Yes
ə > a Yes Yes
čr > cr Yes
Dat/loc/ins plural -ma/-u (from dual) Yes

النحو

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نظم الكتابة

انظر أيضاً

الهامش

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "South Slavic". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Friedman, Victor (1999). Linguistic emblems and emblematic languages: on language as flag in the Balkans. Kenneth E. Naylor memorial lecture series in South Slavic linguistics ; vol. 1. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University, Dept. of Slavic and East European Languages and Literatures. p. 8. OCLC 46734277.
  3. ^ Alexander, Ronelle (2000). In honor of diversity: the linguistic resources of the Balkans. Kenneth E. Naylor memorial lecture series in South Slavic linguistics ; vol. 2. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University, Dept. of Slavic and East European Languages and Literatures. p. 4. OCLC 47186443.
  4. ^ Roland Sussex (2006). The Slavic languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 43–44. ISBN 978-0-521-22315-7.
  5. ^ Cited after Matasović (2008:59, 143)
  6. ^ Кочев (Kochev), Иван (Ivan) (2001). Български диалектен атлас (Bulgarian dialect atlas) (in Bulgarian). София: Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. ISBN 954-90344-1-0. OCLC 48368312.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)

المصادر

للاستزادة

وصلات خارجية