افتح القائمة الرئيسية

العصور الوسطى المبكرة

العصور الوسطى المبكرة
Charlemagne's empire included most of modern France, Germany, the Low Countries, Austria and northern Italy.

Historians typically regard the Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, sometimes referred to as the Dark Ages, as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century.[note 1] They marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history. The alternative term "Late Antiquity" emphasizes elements of continuity with the Roman Empire, while "Early Middle Ages" is used to emphasize developments characteristic of the earlier medieval period. As such the concept overlaps with Late Antiquity, following the decline of the Western Roman Empire, and precedes the High Middle Ages (ح. 11th to 13th centuries).

The period saw a continuation of trends evident since late classical antiquity, including population decline, especially in urban centres, a decline of trade, a small rise in global warming and increased migration. In the 19th century the Early Middle Ages were often labelled the "Dark Ages", a characterization based on the relative scarcity of literary and cultural output from this time.[1] However, the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantine Empire, continued to survive, though in the 7th century the Rashidun Caliphate and the Umayyad Caliphate conquered swathes of formerly Roman territory.

Many of the listed trends reversed later in the period. In 800 the title of "Emperor" was revived in Western Europe with Charlemagne, whose Carolingian Empire greatly affected later European social structure and history. Europe experienced a return to systematic agriculture in the form of the feudal system, which adopted such innovations as three-field planting and the heavy plough. Barbarian migration stabilized in much of Europe, although the Viking expansion greatly affected Northern Europe.

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فهرست

History

Collapse of Rome


 
Die Hunnen im Kampf mit den Alanen, (The Huns in battle with the Alans by Johann Nepomuk Geiger, 1873). The Alans, an Iranian people who lived north and east of the Black Sea, functioned as Europe's first line of defence against the Asiatic Huns.[بحاجة لمصدر] They were dislocated and settled throughout the Roman Empire


The Barbarians' Invasions
The destruction of the Gothic kingdoms by the Huns in 372–375 triggered the Germanic migrations of the 5th century. The Visigoths captured and looted the city of Rome in 410; the Vandals followed suit in 455


Migration Period

قالب:More citations needed section

Migration Period
The Mausoleum of Theodoric in Ravenna is the only extant example of Ostrogothic architecture.
Around 500, the Visigoths ruled large parts of what is now France, Spain, Andorra and Portugal.


Byzantine Empire

Byzantine Empire
Byzantium under the Justinian dynasty
  • Under Emperor Justinian (r. 527-565), the Byzantines were able to reestablish Roman rule in Italy and most of North Africa.


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Rise of Islam

632–750
 
Europe around 650

Birth of the Latin West

700–850

قالب:Tone

 
The Sutton Hoo helmet, an Anglo-Saxon parade helmet from the 7th century


Frankish Empire

Charlemagne's Coronation
On 25 December 800, Charlemagne was crowned emperor by Pope Leo III. Coronation of Charlemagne, Grandes Chroniques de France, Jean Fouquet, Tours, c. 1455-1460


Viking Age

 
Scandinavian settlements and raiding territory. Note : yellow in England and southern Italy covers the Viking expansion from Normandy, called by the name of Norman
  •      8th century homeland
  •      9th century expansion
  •      10th century expansion

     Viking raiding regions


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Eastern Europe

600–1000

The Early Middle Ages marked the beginning of the cultural distinctions between Western and Eastern Europe north of the Mediterranean. Influence from the Byzantine Empire impacted the Christianization and hence almost every aspect of the cultural and political development of the East from the preeminence of Caesaropapism and Eastern Christianity to the spread of the Cyrillic alphabet. The turmoil of the so-called Barbarian invasions in the beginning of the period gradually gave way to more stabilized societies and states as the origins of contemporary Eastern Europe began to take shape during the High Middle Ages.

Magyar campaigns in the 10th century

     Magyar region


Most European nations were praying for mercy: "Sagittis hungarorum libera nos, Domine" - "Lord save us from the arrows of Hungarians"[بحاجة لمصدر]

Bulgaria

 
Ceramic icon of St Theodore from around 900, found in Preslav, Bulgarian capital from 893–972

In 632 the Bulgars established the khanate of Old Great Bulgaria under the leadership of Kubrat. The Khazars managed to oust the Bulgars from Southern Ukraine into lands along middle Volga (Volga Bulgaria) and along lower Danube (Danube Bulgaria).


Transmission of learning

Abbey of Santo Domingo de Silos
In the Early Middle Ages, cultural life was concentrated at monasteries.

Byzantium's golden age

Miniature from the Paris Psalter
Byzantium in the 10th century experienced a wide-scale cultural revival.

Christianity West and East

Sacramentarium Gelasianum.
Frontispiece of Incipit from the Vatican manuscript
St Boniface - Baptism and Martyrdom.


Holy Roman Empire

10th century

The Holy Roman Empire
HRE in era from Emperor Otto I to Konrad II included present-day: Germany, the Czech Republic, Austria, Slovenia, northern half of Italy, Switzerland, (south)eastern France, Belgium and the Netherlands
Imperial region

Other regions


Middle East

Rise of Islam

Muawiyah IAli ibn Abi TalibUthman ibn AffanUmar ibn al-KhattabAbu BakrMuhammad 

Consult particular article for details

 
The Islamic Prophet Muhammad[note 2] preaching
Rise of Islam
Arab expansion in the 7th century
  •      Area I : Muhammad
  •      Area II : Abu Bakr
  •      Area III : Omar
  •      Area IV : Uthman
The 10th-century Grand Mosque of Cordoba

(Andalusian city, Córdoba, Spain)


The site of the Grand Mosque was originally a pagan temple, then a Visigothic Christian church, before the Umayyad Moors at first converted the building into a mosque and then built a new mosque on the site.


Islamic expansion

The Islamic expansion of the 7th and 8th centuries
  • ██ Muhammad's conquests, 622–632
  • ██ Rashidun Caliphate, 632–661
  • ██ Umayyad Caliphate, 661–750


European timelines

Beginning years

Siege of Constantinople (674)Gothic War (535–552)Roman-Persian WarBattle of TolbiacPope Gregory IOdoacerMuhammadJustinian IClovis ISaint Augustine 
Dates

Ending years

Battle of ToursAl-AndalusOtto I, Holy Roman EmperorAlfred the GreatCharlemagneArdo 
Dates

See also

Notes

  1. ^ For more detail on the various starting and ending dates used by historians, see Middle Ages#Terminology and periodisation.
  2. ^ 17th-century Ottoman copy of an early 14th-century (Ilkhanate period) manuscript of Northwestern Iran or northern Iraq (the "Edinburgh codex). Illustration of Abū Rayhan al-Biruni 's al-Athar al-Baqiyah (الآثار الباقيةة, "The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries")

References

Citations
  1. ^ Mommsen, Theodore E. (1942). "Petrarch's Conception of the 'Dark Ages'". Speculum. Cambridge MA: Medieval Academy of America. 17 (2): 226–227. doi:10.2307/2856364. JSTOR 2856364.

Further reading

  • Cambridge Economic History of Europe, vol. I 1966. Michael M. Postan, et al., editors.
  • Norman F. Cantor, 1963. The Medieval World 300 to 1300, (New York: MacMillen Co.)
  • Marcia L. Colish, 1997. Medieval Foundations of the Western Intellectual Tradition: 400-1400. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press)
  • Georges Duby, 1974. The Early Growth of the European Economy: Warriors and Peasants from the Seventh to the Twelfth Century (New York: Cornell University Press) Howard B. Clark, translator.
  • Georges Duby, editor, 1988. A History of Private Life II: Revelations of the Medieval World (Harvard University Press)
  • Heinrich Fichtenau, (1957) 1978. The Carolingian Empire (University of Toronto) Peter Munz, translator.
  • Charles Freeman, 2003. The Closing of the Western Mind: The Rise of Faith and the Fall of Reason (London: William Heinemann)
  • Richard Hodges, 1982. Dark Age Economics: The Origins of Towns and Trade AD 600-1000 (New York: St Martin's Press)
  • David Knowles, (1962) 1988. The Evolution of Medieval Thought (Random House)
  • Richard Krautheimer, 1980. Rome: Profile of a City 312-1308 (Princeton University Press)
  • Robin Lane Fox, 1986. Pagans and Christians (New York: Knopf)
  • David C. Lindberg, 1992. The Beginnings of Western Science: 600 BC-1450 AD (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press)
  • John Marenbon (1983) 1988.Early Medieval Philosophy (480-1150): An Introduction (London: Routledge)
  • Rosamond McKittrick, 1983 The Frankish Church Under the Carolingians (London: Longmans, Green)
  • Karl Frederick Morrison, 1969. Tradition and Authority in the Western Church, 300-1140 (Princeton University Press)
  • Pierre Riché, (1978) 1988. Daily Life in the Age of Charlemagne (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press)
  • Laury Sarti, "Perceiving War and the Military in Early Christian Gaul (ca. 400–700 A.D.)" (= Brill's Series on the Early Middle Ages, 22), Leiden/Boston 2013, ISBN 978-9004-25618-7.
  • Richard Southern, 1953. The Making of the Middle Ages (Yale University Press)
  • Chris Wickham, 2005. Framing the early Middle Ages: Europe and the Mediterranean 400-800, Oxford University Press.
  • Early Medieval History page, Clio History Journal, Dickson College, Australian Capital Territory.
  • Glimpses of the dark ages: Or, Sketches of the social condition of Europe, from the fifth to the twelfth century. (1846). New-York: Leavitt, Trow & company

External links