الجيش الأرمني السري لتحرير أرمينيا

الجيش الأرمني السري لتحرير أرمينيا (ASALA) (بالأرمينية: Հայաստանի Ազատագրութեան Հայ Գաղտնի Բանակ, ՀԱՀԳԲ, Hayasdani Azadakrut'ean Hay Kaghtni Panag, HAHKP؛ بالإنگليزية: Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia) was an Armenian militant organization, that operated from 1975[2] to the early 1990s.[3] It was considered a terrorist organization by some sources,[4][5][6][7] other sources describe it as guerrilla[8][9][10][11] and armed[12] organization. ASALA was listed as a terrorist organization by the United States in the 1980s.[13] 46 people were killed and 299 injured as a result of ASALA attacks and assassinations. The stated intention of ASALA was "to compel the Turkish Government to acknowledge publicly its responsibility for the Armenian Genocide in 1915, pay reparations, and cede territory for an Armenian homeland".[14] The principal goal of ASALA was to reestablish historical Armenia that would include eastern Turkey and the Soviet Armenia.[15] The territory to be ceded would be the area promised to the Armenians at the never-ratified Treaty of Sèvres in 1920 by الرئيس الأمريكي وودرو ولسون، "أرمنيا الولسونية".[16]

الجيش الأرمني السري لتحرير أرمينيا
Հայաստանի Ազատագրութեան Հայ Գաղտնի Բանակ (ՀԱՀԳԲ)
Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA)
الزعيمهاگوپ هاگوپيان (1975-1988)[1]
تواريخ النشاط1975–1988 حسب MİT 1991
الدوافع"إجبار الحكومة التركية على الاعتراف، علناً، بمسئوليتها عن الابادة العرقية للأرمن في 1915، وأن تدفع تعويضات، وأن تتنازل عن أراضي للوطن الأرمني."[2]
مناطق النشاطلبنان، أوروبا الغربية، اليونان، الولايات المتحدة، تركيا
الأيديولوجيةأرمنيا الكبرى
الأعمال الرئيسيةاغتيال عدد من الدبلوماسيين الأتراك وذويهم.
Bombing of Turkish, French and Swiss targets for varying motives.
Several minor bombing attacks against US airline offices in Western Europe.
الهجمات البارزةParis Turkish consulate attack (1981)
Esenboğa Airport attack (1982)
Orly Airport attack (1983)
الوضعInactive / dissolved
الحلفاءPLO, PKK (in 1980)

The group received considerable clandestine support from Armenian diaspora in Europe and in the United States.[17]

Suffering from internal schisms, the group was relatively inactive in the 1990s, although in 1991 it claimed an unsuccessful attack on the Turkish ambassador to Hungary. The organization has not engaged in militant activity since then.[18]

The group's mottos were "The armed struggle and right political line are the way to Armenia" and "Viva the revolutionary solidarity of oppressed people!".[19]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

الأصول

 
الأراضي التي تطالب بها أصالا.
 
تمثال نصفي مونتي ملكونيان أحد مقاتلي أصالا، في يريڤان.

100 years had passed since the Ottoman Empire had embarked on the campaign to exterminate its Armenian population, which was largely concentrated in its eastern provinces and referred to at the time as Western Armenia. The survivors of the massacres and deprivations commonly seen in the death marches found refuge in countries in the Middle East and in Western Europe and the USA. While the key ringleaders of the genocide were assassinated in the 1920s by Armenians (see Operation Nemesis), the Ottoman Empire's successor, the Republic of Turkey, stated that a genocide had not taken place. It actively campaigned against any and all attempts to publicise the events and bring forward recognition in the West. It, in fact, blamed Armenians for instigating the violence and alleged that Armenians had massacred thousands of Turks, prompting the commencement of their deportations. In 1965, Armenians around the world publicly marked the 50th anniversary and began to campaign for world recognition. As peaceful marches and demonstrations failed to move an intransigent Turkey, the younger generation of Armenians, resentful at the denial by Turkey and the failure by their parents' generation to effect change, sought new approaches to bringing about recognition and reparations.[بحاجة لمصدر]


ردود الفعل

 
The ASALA memorial in the military cemetery of Yerablur, يريڤان


النشرات

 
Hayasdan
 
An ASALA publication (1995)

Since 1970's the ASALA Information Branch published books, booklets, posters and other promotional materials. Hayasdan ('Armenia'), was the official multi-lingual organ of ASALA published in 1980-1987, 1991-1997. The first issue was published in October 1980 and contained 40 pages.[20] The place of publication and names of contributors are not known. It was published monthly, sometimes with united volumes. The main language was Armenian. From 1983 to 1987 it has separate issues in Arabic, English, French and Turkish.[21] The journal published editorials, official announcements of ASALA, articles on political and military issues. Hayasdan was distributed free of charge in Armenian communities.


انظر أيضاً

الهامش

  1. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة MIPT
  2. ^ أ ب Hunsicker (2006). Understanding International Counter Terrorism. Universal-Publishers. p. 431. ISBN 1-58112-905-X.
  3. ^ Roy, Olivier. Turkey Today: A European Nation? p. 170. Roy suggests that the Orly incident led to "dissension end[ing] in the settling of scores in which ASALA militants killed each other in their camp at Bekaa (Al-Biqa, Lebanon)... (It) practically disappeared. It resurfaced once again, however, to assassinate important members of the Lebanese section of the Dashnak Party (March 1985 - May 1986)."
  4. ^ John E. Jessup. An encyclopedic dictionary of conflict and conflict resolution, 1945—1996. Greenwood Publishing Group, 1998. ISBN 0-313-28112-2, ISBN 978-0-313-28112-9, p. 39
  5. ^ Michel Wieviorka, David Gordon White. The making of terrorism. University of Chicago Press, 1993. ISBN 0-226-89650-1, ISBN 978-0-226-89650-2, p. 256
  6. ^ Bruce Hoffman. Inside terrorism. Columbia University Press, 2006. ISBN 0-231-12699-9, ISBN 978-0-231-12699-1, p. 71
  7. ^ Global Terrorist Organizations http://www.worldstatesmen.org/Terrorist.html#Armenian
  8. ^ Political dissent: an international guide to dissident, extra-parliamentary, guerrilla, and illegal political movements, by Henry W. Degenhardt, Alan John Day, Gale Research Company, 1983, p. 489
  9. ^ Remembring with Vengeance, by Pico Iyer // Time magazine, № 32, 8 Aug, 1983
  10. ^ The Caucasus: an introduction, by Frederik Coene, 2009 - 238 pages, p. 221
  11. ^ The history of Turkey, by Douglas Arthur Howard - 2001 - 241 pages, p. 161
  12. ^ Untold Histories of the Middle East, by Amy Singer, Christoph Neumann, Selcuk Somel - 2010 - 240 pages, p. 27
  13. ^ United States Department of State. Patterns of Global Terrorism Report: 1989, p 57
  14. ^ U.S. Department of State. "Appendix B". Patterns of Global Terrorism Report - 1996 . |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  15. ^ Terrorist Group Profiles. DIANE Publishing, 1989. p. 32
  16. ^ Pitman, Paul M. Turkey: A Country Study. Washington, D.C.: The Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress, 283, 354-355 قالب:Oclc
  17. ^ Encyclopedia of terrorism. Harvey W. Kushner. SAGE, 2003. p. 47
  18. ^ Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA). GlobalSecurity.org
  19. ^ (أرمنية) G. Yazchian, Thirty years ago this day was born ASALA, Azg daily, Yerevan, January 20, 2005
  20. ^ Mamule 1967-1980, by Zhirair Danielyan, Haigazian handes, hador T, 1981
  21. ^ The Armenian Question, encyclopedia, Ed. by acad. K. Khudaverdyan, Yerevan, 1996, p. 209, Hayaqsdan by A. Sanjian

قالب:Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia قالب:Defunct Armed Armenian Organizations