ألفية روسيا

Coordinates: 58°31′16.05″N 31°16′30.87″E / 58.5211250°N 31.2752417°E / 58.5211250; 31.2752417

ألفية روسيا (بالروسية Тысячелетие России؛ بالإنگليزية: Millennium of Russia) هو نصب برونزي في كرملن نوڤگورود. وقد أقيم في 1862 في الذكرى الألفية لوصول روريك إلى نوڤگورود، وهو الحدث الذي يُعتبر تقليدياً نقطة بداية تاريخ الدولة الروسية.

ألفية روسيا.
ألفية روسيا (1862)، مع Saint Sophia Cathedral في الخلفية. الصف العلوي من الشخصيات هو مصبوب في المحيط والصف الأسفل هو نحت بارز.

A competition to design the monument was held in 1859. An architect Viktor Hartmann and an artist Mikhail Mikeshin were declared the winners. Mikeshin's design called for a grandiose, 15-metre-high bell crowned by a cross symbolizing the tsar's power. The bell was to be encircled with several tiers of sculptures representing Russian monarchs, clerics, generals, and artists active during various periods of Russian history.

Mikeshin himself was no sculptor, therefore the 129 individual statues for the monument were made by the leading Russian sculptors of the day, including his friend Ivan Schroeder and the celebrated Alexander Opekushin. Rather unexpectedly for such an official project, the tsars and commanders were represented side by side with sixteen eminent personalities of Russian culture: Lomonosov, Pushkin, Lermontov, Gogol, Karl Brullov, Mikhail Glinka, etc. As for the Russian rulers, Ivan the Terrible is famously absent from the monument due to his role in the 1570 pillage and massacre of Novgorod by the Oprichnina. Alongside the Muscovite princes, the mediaeval Lithuanian dynasts such as Gediminas or Vytautas the Great who reigned over the Eastern Slavs of the present-day Belarus and Ukraine are represented.

عملة تذكارية سوڤيتية صدرت في 1988.
طابع بريد روسي. في ذكرى مرور 1140 عام على تأسيس الدولة الروسية (2002)

The most expensive Russian monument up to that time, it was erected at a cost of 400,000 roubles, mostly raised by public subscription. In order to provide an appropriate pedestal for the huge sculpture, sixteen blocks of Sortavala granite were brought to Novgorod, each weighing in excess of 35 tons. The bronze monument itself weighs 100 tons.

At the time when the monument was inaugurated, many art critics felt that it was overloaded with figures. Supporters regard Mikeshin's design as harmonious with the medieval setting of the Kremlin, and subtly accentuating the vertical thrust and grandeur of the nearby 11th-century Saint Sophia Cathedral.

أثناء الحرب العالمية الثانية، فكك النازيون النصب، وحضـّروه ليـُنقلوه إلى ألمانيا. إلا أن الجيش الأحمر استعاد السيطرة على نوڤگورود وأعيد ترميم النصب وافتـُتـِح للعامة في 1944. وصدرت عملة تذكارية من فئة 5-روبل في الاتحاد السوڤيتي في 1988 تخليداً للنصب.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

المستوى الأوسط


الصورة الاسم الاسم بالروسية السنة التاريخية الوصف
  The arrival of the Varangians in Rus Призвание варягов на Русь 862 The statue of the first warrior prince Rurik with helmet and shield with the inscription "year 6370" (since the creation of the world). Rurik wears a fur on his shoulders, behind him the pagan Slavic god Veles can be seen. The figure looks south-west, in the direction of Kiev.
  The Christianization of Rus Крещение Руси 988 في الوسط، يمكن العثور على الأمير الأكبر لكييڤ ڤلاديمير الأكبر، رافعاً صليباً أرثوذكسيا. وبجانبه إمرأة تحمل طفلها للتعميد وسلاڤي يتبرأ من الإله الوثني پـِرون. التشكيل ينظر في اتجاه الجنوب الشرقي.
  بداية طرد التتار Начало изгнания татар 1380 Dmitry Donskoi, the victor in the Battle of Kulikovo, holds a Russian mace in his right hand. At his feet lies Mamai, the defeated warlord of the Golden Horde. In the left hand Dmitry Donskoi holds a captured bunchuk, the Tatar symbol of power. The composition looks east.
  تأسيس قيصرية روسية مستقلة Основание самодержавного царства Русского 1491 إيڤان الأكبر في رداء الأباطرة البيزنطيين مع Monomach's Cap. In his hands he holds a scepter and a globus cruciger. In front of him, a Tatar is kneeling, beside him, a Lithuanian is lying, representing Grand Duchy of Lithuania, as well as a Teutonic knight with a broken sword, representing the Order of الفرسان التيوتون. The composition looks north-east.
  تنصيب أسرة رومانوڤ على العرش Начало династии Романовых 1613 القيصر الشاب ميخائيل من روسيا يرتقي عرش روسيا بعد التغلب على زمن الشدائد. Prince Dmitry Pozharsky who represents the nobility protects him with his sword while Kuzma Minin who represents the people offers him the Monomach's Cap and the scepter. In the background, a figure of a Siberian Cossack can be found which symbolizes the colonization of Siberia to come.
  خلق الامبراطورية الروسية Образование Российской империи 1721 Peter the Great with laurel wreath and scepter in the right hand is supported by an angel showing him the way to the north-west where the future city of سانت پطرسبورگ shall be founded. At Peter's feet, defeated Swede can be found trying to protect his torn flag. This symbolizes the Russian victory in the Great Northern War. The composition looks north-west.


المستوى الأسفل

رجال التنوير: رجال الدولة: العسكر والأبطال: الكتاب والفنانون:
  Cyril and Methodius, missionaries of Slavs   ياروسلاڤ الحكيم، Grand Prince of Kiev   سڤياتوسلاڤ الأول من كييڤ, Grand Prince of Kiev   ميخائيل لومونوسوڤ، متعدد المواهب
  Olga of Kiev, Grand Princess of Kiev   Vladimir Monomakh, Grand Prince of Kiev   Mstislav Mstislavich, Prince of Novgorod and Galicia   Denis Fonvizin, playwright
  Vladimir the Great, Grand Prince of Kiev   Gediminas, Grand Prince of Lithuania   Daniel of Galicia, Prince of Galicia   Alexander Kokorinov, architect
  Abraham of Rostov, bishop of Rostov   Algirdas, Grand Prince of Lithuania   Daumantas, Prince of Pskov   Gavrila Derzhavin, poet and statesman
  Anthony of Kiev, founder of the Monastery of the Caves   Vytautas, Grand Prince of Lithuania   Alexander Nevsky, Grand Prince of Vladimir   Fyodor Volkov, actor
  Theodosius of Kiev, Kievan monk   Ivan the Great, Grand Prince of Moscow   Michael of Tver, Prince of Tver   Nikolai Karamzin, playwright and historian
  Kuksha of the Kiev Caves, Kievan monk   Sylvester, clergyman and statesman   Dmitry Donskoi, Grand Prince of Moscow   Ivan Krylov, poet of fables
  Nestor the Chronicler, chronicler of the Russian history   Anastasia Romanovna, first wife of Ivan the Terrible   Kęstutis, Grand Prince of Lithuania   Vasily Zhukovsky, poet and translator
  Cyril of White Lake, Founder of the Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery   Alexey Adashev, Ivan IV's bosom friend and advisor   Daniil Kholmsky, general   Nikolay Gnedich, Poet and translator
  Stephen of Perm, Bishop and Missionary of Perm   Hermogenes, Patriarch of Moscow   Mikhail Vorotynsky، فيلد مارشال   Aleksandr Griboyedov, Writer and Diplomat
  Alexius of Moscow, Metropolitan of Kiev and Moscow   Michael Romanov, first Romanov tsar   Daniil Shchenya, military leader   Mikhail Lermontov, poet and writer
  Sergius of Radonezh, spiritual leader   Filaret, Patriarch of Moscow   Marfa Boretskaya, Posadnik of Novgorod   Alexander Pushkin, poet and writer
  Peter Mogila, Metropolitan of Kiev   Afanasy Ordin-Nashchokin, Diplomat   Yermak Timofeyevich, Cossack leader   Nikolai Gogol, Writer
  Zosima of Solovki, Founder of the Solovetsky Monastery   Artamon Matveyev, Statesman and Diplomat   Mikhail Skopin-Shuisky, military leader   Mikhail Glinka, Composer
  Maximus the Greek, Writer and scholar   Alexei I, Tsar   Dmitry Pozharsky, Prince   Karl Briullov, Painter
  Savvatiy, Founder of the Solovetsky Monastery   Peter the Great, Tsar and first emperor   Kuzma Minin, Organizer of the People's Army   Dmitry Bortniansky, Composer
  Jonah of Moscow, Metropolitan of Moscow   Yakov Dolgorukov, advisor to Peter I   Avraamy Palitsyn, Monk and Writer
  Macarius of Moscow, Metropolitan of Moscow   Ivan Betskoy, Statesman and Reformer   Bohdan Khmelnytsky, Hetman of the Zaporizhian cossacks
  Varsonofius of Tver, Archbishop of Tver   Catherine the Great, Empress   Ivan Susanin, Folk hero
  Guriy of Kazan, Archbishop of Kazan   Alexander Bezborodko, Statesman and Diplomat   Boris Sheremetev، فيلد مارشال and Diplomat
  Konstantin Ostrozhsky, Prince and voivode of Kiev   Grigory Potyomkin, Statesman and Diplomat   Mikhail Golitsyn، فيلد مارشال
  Nikon, Patriarch of Moscow   Viktor Kochubey، رجل دولة ودبلوماسي   Pyotr Saltykov، فيلد مارشال
  Fyodor Rtishchev, Philanthropist   Alexander I, Tsar   Burkhard von Münnich، فيلد مارشال
  Dimitry of Rostov, Churchman and composer   Mikhail Speransky، رجل دولة   ألكسي أورلوڤ، جنرال
  Tikhon of Zadonsk, Archbishop of Ladoga and Voronezh   Mikhail Vorontsov، فيلد مارشال   Pyotr Rumyantsev، فيلد مارشال
  Mitrofan of Voronezh, Archbishop of Voronezh   Nicholas I, Tsar   Alexander Suvorov، جنراليسيمو
  Georgy Konissky, Archbishop of Belarus   Michael Barclay de Tolly، فيلد مارشال
  Feofan Prokopovich, Archbishop of Novgorod; Statesman   ميخائيل كوتوزوڤ، فيلد مارشال
  Platon Levshin, Metropolitan of Moscow   Dmitry Senyavin، أميرال
  Innocent, Archbishop of Chersonesos Taurica   Matvei Platov, General
  Pyotr Bagration, General
  Karl Diebitsch-Sabalkanski، فيلد مارشال
  Ivan Paskevich، فيلد مارشال
  Mikhail Lazarev، أميرال
  Vladimir Kornilov, نائب أميرال
  پاڤل ناخيموڤ، أميرال


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

معرض صور

الهامش

وصلات خارجية