افتح القائمة الرئيسية

أكولا (طراز غواصات)

هذا المقال يتضمن أسماءً أعجمية تتطلب حروفاً إضافية (پ چ ژ گ ڤ ڠ).
لمطالعة نسخة مبسطة، بدون حروف إضافية

غواصة طراز أكولا المشروع 971 Щука-Б (شوكا-B, 'شوكا' تعني pike, تسمية الناتو "أكولا")، هي غواصة مقاتلة تعمل بالطاقة النووية (SSN) استخدمتها البحرية السوڤيتية لأول مرة عام 1986. أكولا ("القرش") هو أيضا أحد طرز الغواصات السوفيتية الحاملة للصواريخ الباليستية والتي صنفتها الناتو غواصة طراز تايفون.

Submarine Vepr by Ilya Kurganov crop.jpg
Class overview
Name:أكولا
Akula
Operators:Soviet Navy Ensign البحرية السوڤيتية
Russian Navy Ensign البحرية الروسية
Preceded by:طراز سيرا
Succeeded by:Graney class, Severodvinsk Class (قيد التطوير)
In service:1986
Planned:20[1]
Completed:15
Cancelled:5
Active:9
Retired:4
Preserved:3
السمات العامة
النوع: غواصة مقاتلة تعمل بالطاقة النووية
الإزاحة: 5,700-8,140 طن على السطح
7,900-9,100 طن submerged
7,900-12,770 طن غاطسة (أكولا-II)
الطول: 108.0 - 111.7 م (المصادر تختلف)
Beam: 13.6 m
Draught: 9.7 m
الدفع: one 190 MW OK-650B/OK-650M pressurized water nuclear reactor
1 OK-7 steam turbine 43,000 hp (32 MW)
2 OK-2 Turbogenerators producing 2,000 kW
1 seven-bladed propeller
2 retractable electric propulsors for low-speed maneuvering at 3 عقدة (6 km/h)
السرعة:
Endurance: 100 days[1]
عمق الاختبار: 480 m عمق عملياتي
600 م test depth
660 m calculated crush depth[2]
Complement: 73[3]
الطاقم: 73[1]
المجسات
والأنظمة المعالجة:
MGK-540 active/passive suite
Flank arrays
Pelamida مصفوفة سونار مجرورة
MG-70 mine detection sonar
الحرب الإلكترونية
والشراك:
Bukhta ESM/ECM
*MG-74 Korund noise simulation decoys (fired from external tubes)
MT-70 Sonar intercept receiver
Nikhrom-M IFF
التسليح:

4x533mm torpedo tubes (plus 6 external 533mm tubes on Improved Akulas and Akula II's; 28 torpedoes) 4x650mm torpedo tubes (12 torpedoes)

1-3x SA-N-10 Igla-M Surface-to-air missile launcher fired from sail (surface use only)
ملاحظات: Chiblis Surface Search radar
Medvyedista-945 Navigation system
Molniya-M Satellite communications
MGK-80 Underwater communications
Tsunami, Kiparis, Anis, Sintez and Kora Communications antennas
Paravan Towed VLF Antenna
Vspletsk Combat direction system

وتوجد ثلاث فئات فرعية من شوكا، تتألف من السبع غواصات الأصلية ويسموا غواصات "أكولا I"، التي بنيت بين 1982 و 1986، وخمس غواصات "أكولا محسنة" بنيت بين 1986 و 1991، وغواصتان "أكولا II" بنيت منذ 1991. التمييز بين طرازي أكولا المحسنة وأكولا هو موضع خلاف بين المصادر المسئولة. ويسمي الروس كل هذه الغواصات شوكا-B، بغض النظر عن التعديلات.

Akula class SSN with descriptions
Sideview of the sub

The Akula incorporates a double hull system composed of an inner pressure hull and an outer "light" hull. This allows more freedom in the design of the exterior hull shape, resulting in a very hydrodynamic submarine compared to western counterparts at the time.

The distinctive "bulb" or "can" seen on top of the Akula's rudder houses its مصفوفة السونار المجرورة، when retracted.

كل غواصات أكولا مزودة بأربع أنابيب طوربيد عيار 533 مم يمكنها استعمال Type 53 torpedoes or the SS-N-15 Starfish missile, and four 650 mm torpedo tubes which can use Type 65 torpedoes or the SS-N-16 Stallion missile. These torpedo tubes are arranged in two rows of four tubes each. Improved Akulas and Akula IIs have an additional six 533 mm torpedo tubes mounted externally, however it is unclear whether these are fully functional external tubes, or if they are only capable of launching الألغام والشراك. The external tubes are mounted outside the pressure hull in one row, above the 'Normal' Torpedo tubes, and can only be reloaded in port or with the assistance of a submarine tender. The 650 mm tubes can be fitted with liners to use the 533 mm weaponry. The submarine is also able to use its torpedo tubes to deploy mines.

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فهرست

الوضع الحالي

As with many Soviet/Russian craft, information on the status of the Akula Class submarines is sparse, at best. Information provided by several internet sites varies widely.

 
نموذج للغواصة أكولا
 
Two Akula Class Submarines, Type I, in port


الغواصات أكولا-I

Of the seven original Akula-I submarines, only three are known to still be in service. These boats are equipped with MGK-500 Skat sonar system (with NATO reporting name Shark Gill). The lead boat of the class, K-284 'Akula' was decommissioned in 2001, apparently to help save money in the cash-strapped Russian Navy. K-322 'Kashalot' and K-480 'Bars' [Currently Ak Bars] are in reserve. K-480 'Bars' was put into reserve in 1998,[1] and is being dismantled in February 2010.[4] 'Pantera' was due to return to service in March-April 2008 after a comprehensive overhaul.


غواصات أكولا-II

The Akula II is approximately 230 tons larger in displacement and 2.5m greater in LOA compared to that of the Akula I's. The added space was used for an active noise reduction system. The MGK-501 Skat sonar system on Akula-I is replaced to a new MGK-540 Skat-3 sonar system, which is considered by its designers as the same class of American AN/BQQ-5/6. The K-157 Vepr (The first ship of this type) became the first Soviet submarine that was quieter than the latest U.S. attack submarines of that time, which was the Improved Los Angeles class (SSN 751 and later)[5] The K-335 Gepard is the second unit.[1][1]

The Soviet advances in sound quieting was of considerable concern to the West, for acoustics was long considered the most significant advantage in U.S. submarine technology compared to the Soviets.

In 1983-1984 the Japanese firm Toshiba sold sophisticated, nine axis milling equipment to the Soviets along with the computer control systems, which were developed by Norwegian firm Kongsberg Vaapenfabrik. U.S Navy officials and Congressmen announced that this technology enabled the Soviet submarine builders to produce more accurate and quieter propellers.[6]

The command and control methods and also weapons for this later variant were centralised, with a high degree of automation, similar to the Project 705 Alfa SSN. This automation reduced crew numbers.

 
Akula class submarine underway

Due to the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991, production of all Akulas slowed.

The 1999-2000 edition of Jane's Fighting Ships incorrectly listed the first Akula-II as Viper (The actual name is "Vepr", wild boar in Russian), commissioned November 25, 1995, Gepard (Cheetah), launched 1999 and commissioned December 5, 2001, and Nerpa, laid down in 1993[1] began sea trials in October, 2008 and is expected to be commissioned and leased to the Indian Navy as INS Chakra in late 2009.[7]

The Gepard is known to have a slightly smaller and streamlined towed array dispenser than the other submarines of the class. She also appears to have a longer sail than other Akula class submarines. President Vladimir Putin was on board Gepard after the Kursk incident.

الوحدات

Akula class — significant dates
# المشروع الاسم حوض بناء السفن Laid down Launched Commissioned الوضع
K-284 971 Akula Amur Shipyard, Komsomolsk 6 November 1983 16 June 1984 30 December 1984 Pacific Fleet. 2001 removed from service[8]
K-263 971 Delfin حوض آمور، كومسمولسك 9 May 1985 28 May 1986 30 December 1987 Pacific Fleet, removed from active service, status unclear[8]
K-322 971 Kashalot Amur Shipyard, Komsomolsk 5 September 1986 18 July 1987 30 December 1988 Pacific Fleet, removed from active service, status unclear[8]
K-480 971 AkBars SEVMASH, Severodvinsk 22 February 1985 16 March 1988 31 December 1988 Northern Fleet. Removed from service 1998.[8] Broken up in Severodvinsk as of February 2010.[4]
K-391 971 Bratsk Amur Shipyard, Komsomolsk 23 February 1988 14 April 1989 29 December 1989 Pacific Fleet, removed from active service, status unclear[8]
K-317 971 Pantera SEVMASH, Severodvinsk 6 November 1986 21 May 1990 30 December 1990 Northern Fleet[8]
K-331 971 Magadan (ex Narval) Amur Shipyard, Komsomolsk 28 December 1989 23 June 1990 31 December 1990 Pacific Fleet[8]
K-461 971 Volk SEVMASH, Severodvinsk 14 November 1987 11 June 1991 29 December 1991 Northern Fleet[8]
K-328 971 Leopard SEVMASH, Severodvinsk 26 October 1988 28 June 1992 15 December 1992 Northern Fleet[8]
K-419 971 Kuzbass Amur Shipyard, Komsomolsk 28 July 1991 18 May 1992 31 December 1992 Pacific Fleet
K-154 971 Tigr SEVMASH, Severodvinsk 10 September 1989 26 June 1993 29 December 1993 Northern Fleet[8]
K-295 971 Samara Amur Shipyard, Komsomolsk 7 November 1993 5 August 1994 28 July 1995 Pacific Fleet[8]
K-157 971 Vepr SEVMASH, Severodvinsk 13 July 1990 10 December 1994 25 November 1995 Northern Fleet[8]
K-335 971 M[بحاجة لمصدر] Gepard SEVMASH, Severodvinsk 23 September 1991 17 September 1999 5 December 2001 Northern Fleet[8]
K-337 971 Kuguar SEVMASH, Severodvinsk 18 August 1992 x x Not completed. Hull used for Dolgorukiy SSBN[8]
K-333 971 Rys' SEVMASH, Severodvinsk 31 August 1993 x x Not completed. Hull used for Dolgorukiy SSBN[8]
K-152 971 I[بحاجة لمصدر] Nerpa Amur Shipyard, Komsomolsk 1993 4 July 2006 28 December 2009 Completed. In Pacific Fleet pending lease to India[8]
K-xxx 971 not named Amur Shipyard, Komsomolsk 1994 x x As of 2002, discussion of use of parts for Dolgorukiy SSBN[8]
K-xxx 971 not named Amur Shipyard, Komsomolsk x x x [8]
K-xxx 971 not named Amur Shipyard, Komsomolsk x x x [8]


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تأجيرها للهند

Unconfirmed reports said that India is paying two billion dollars for the completion of two Akula-II class submarines which were 40-60% completed.[9] Three hundred Indian Navy personnel are being trained in Russia for the operation of these submarines. India has finalized a deal with Russia, in which at the end of the lease of these submarines, it has an option to buy them. The first submarine will be named INS Chakra. -- [Other than the name "Chakra", footnote does NOT contain any of the information in the preceding sentences.] -- [10]

Whereas the Russian Navy's Akula-II is equipped with 28 nuclear-capable cruise missiles with a striking range of 3,000 kم (1,620 nmi; 1,864 ميل), the Indian version was reportedly expected to be armed with the 300 kم (162 nmi; 186 ميل)-range 3M-54 Klub nuclear-capable missiles.[11]. Missiles with ranges greater than 300 kم (162 nmi; 186 ميل) cannot be exported due to arms control restrictions, since Russia is a signatory to the MTCR treaty.

حادث نرپ 2008

On 27 October 2008, it was reported that the Akula-II submarine K-152 Nerpa of the Russian Pacific Fleet had begun her sea trials in the Sea of Japan before handover under a lease agreement to the Indian Navy.[7] On 8 November 2008, while conducting one of these trials, an accidental activation of the freon-based fire-extinguishing system took place in the fore section of the vessel. Within seconds the freon gas had displaced all breathable air from the compartment. As a result, 20 people (17 civilians and 3 seamen)[12][13] were killed by asphyxiation. Dozens of others suffered freon-related injuries and were evacuated to an unknown port in Primorsky Krai.[14] This was the worst accident in the Russian navy since the loss of the submarine K-141 Kursk in 2000. The submarine itself did not sustain any serious damage and there was no release of radiation.[15]

المصادر

  1. ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح خ Podvodnye Lodki, Yu.V. Apalkov, Sankt Peterburg, 2003, ISBN 5-8172-0070-8
  2. ^ http://rusnavy.com/news/navy/index.php?ELEMENT_ID=8610
  3. ^ http://www.naval-technology.com/projects/akula/specs.html
  4. ^ أ ب http://fr.rian.ru/russia/20100219/186095660.html
  5. ^ Adm. Boorda, statement at a meeting of the Naval & Maritime Correspondents Circle, Washington, D.C. 27 Feb 1995
  6. ^ "Quieter Soviet subs cost U.S. at least $30 billion," Navy News & Undersea Technology (14 March 1988)
  7. ^ أ ب http://en.rian.ru/russia/20081027/117976941.html
  8. ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح خ د ذ ر ز س ش ص ض ط ظ ع غ Korabli VMF SSSR, Vol. 1, Part 2, Yu. Apalkov, Sankt Peterburg, 2003, ISBN 5-8172-0072-4
  9. ^ Akula class submarine
  10. ^ "Indian nuclear submarine", India Today, July 2008 edition
  11. ^ The Hindu : International / India & World : Russia may lease nuclear submarine to India
  12. ^ "Accident on nuclear submarine kills 20 off eastern Russian coast". International Herald Tribune. 2008-11-09. Retrieved 9 November 2008. Seventeen civilians and three seamen died in the accident and 21 others were hospitalized after being evacuated to a destroyer that brought them to shore, Markin said in a statement. Unknown parameter |curly= ignored (help)
  13. ^ "Twenty dead in Russian nuclear submarine accident". RIA Novosti. 2008-11-09. Retrieved 9 November 2008. Russia's Investigative Committee earlier said the nuclear submarine incident killed 20, including three sailors and 17 shipyard workers, while 22 people were injured. Unknown parameter |curly= ignored (help)
  14. ^ http://en.rian.ru/russia/20081109/118206261.html
  15. ^ "Accident on Russian Nuclear Submarine Kills 20". Reuters. Retrieved 2008-11-09. More than 20 people were killed and another 21 injured in an accident aboard a Russian nuclear submarine in the Pacific Ocean, the navy said on Sunday, in the worst submarine disaster since the Kursk sank eight years ago. Cite has empty unknown parameter: |coauthors= (help)

وصلات خارجية