غليون (سفينة)

(تم التحويل من Galleon)

الغليون Galleons كان سفينة شراعية كبيرة، أول من استخدمها كانت الامبراطورية الاسبانية كسفينة شحن مسلحة ولاحقاً استخدمتها دول أوروپية أخرى من القرن 16 إلى القرن 18 أثناء عصر الشراع وكان الوحدة الأساسية المستخدمة كسفن حربية حتى الحروب الإنگليزية الهولندية في منتصف ع1600.[2] الغليونات، عموماً، كانت تحمل ثلاث صواري أو أكثر مع lateen fore-and-aft rig on the rear masts, were carvel built with a prominent squared off raised stern, and used square-rigged sail plans on their fore-mast and main-masts.

A Spanish galleon (left) firing its cannons at a Dutch warship (right). Cornelis Verbeeck, ca. 1618/1620
A Spanish galleon
Carracks, galleon (center/right), square rigged caravel (below), galley and fusta (galliot) depicted by D. João de Castro on the "Suez Expedition" (part of the Portuguese Armada of 72 ships sent against the Ottoman fleet anchored in Suez, Egypt, in response to its entry in the Indian Ocean and the siege of Diu in 1538) – Tábuas da India in the João de Castro`s Roteiro do Mar Roxo (Routemap of the Red Sea) of 1540–1541. – Despite this kind of ship (or only a close model of art) was already depicted in the heraldry of the Foral of Lisbon (of D. Manuel I) in 1502, it is in 1510 (as also in some of the following years after 1510) the appearance of the Portuguese oceanic galleon in the records. It is however from 1519 that their number increases substantially, but gradually. It was an evolution and a gradual improvement in the design made during the first quarter of the century – technical improvement which continued until the second half of the century. The Portuguese galleon evolved from the square rigged caravel and was a compromise between the great carrack or nau and the aforementioned square rigged caravel or war caravel (also called caravela de armada or Portuguese man of war) that evolved into a new design of ship, but keeping its hull design similar to the galley.[1] It was also more maneuverable, more robust and heavily armed.

Such ships were the mainstay of maritime commerce into the early 19th century, and were often drafted into use as auxiliary naval war vessels—indeed, were the mainstay of contending fleets طوال معظم الـ 150 عاماً من عصر الاستكشاف—قبل أن تجلب الحروب الأنگلو-هولندية السفن الحربية purpose-built ship-rigged التي، بعد ذلك، هيمنت على الحروب البحرية في بقية عصر الشراع.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

أصل الاسم

The term galleon, "large ship", comes from Spanish (Castilian) galeón, "armed merchant ship", from Old French galion, "little ship" (13c.), from Portuguese galeão, "war ship", from Byzantine Greek galea, "galley" + augmentative suffix -on.[3] Another possible origin is the Old French word galie, meaning "galley;"[4] also from Byzantine Greek galea.[5] The galea was a warship of the Byzantine navy, and its name may be related to the Greek word galeos, "dogfish shark".[6] The term was originally given to certain types of war galleys in the Middle Ages. The Annali Genovesi mentions galleons of 80, 64 and 60 oars, used for battle and on missions of exploration, in the 12th and 13th centuries. It is very likely that the galleons and galliots mentioned in the accounts of the crusades were the same vessels.[بحاجة لمصدر] In the early 16th century, the Venetian galleoni was a new class of galley used to hunt down pirates in the Mediterranean.

Later, when the term started to be applied to sail-only vessels, it meant, like the English term "man of war", any large warship that was otherwise no different from the other sailing ships of the time.[بحاجة لمصدر]


بناؤه

 
دفة الغليون pintle and gudgeon


السمات المميزة

 
نموذج لغليون إنگليزي بأربع أنواع من الصواري: (من اليسار إلى اليمين)
 • a 'shorter & second' Bonaventure mizzen: the fourth mast on larger sixteenth century galleons, typically lateen-rigged and shorter than the main mizzen,
 • a short Mizzen-mast (the mast immediately aft of the main-mast; the third mast, also typically shorter than the fore-mast), but on Galleons were Lanteen Rigged.
 • Main-mast: typically, the tallest mast (and on vessels with more than three masts the most centrally located).
 • Fore-mast: typically, the second tallest mast (and on vessels with more than three masts the second most tall) located first after the ship's bow.
 
A three-masted vessel, square-rigged on the foremast and mainmast and lateen-rigged on the mizzenmast.


انظر أيضاً

الهامش

  1. ^ [1] Galeão – Navegações Portuguesas by Francisco Contente Domingues (البرتغالية)
  2. ^ Lane, Kris E. Pillaging the Empire: Piracy in the Americas 1500-1750. M. E. Sharpe, 1998.
  3. ^ http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=galleon
  4. ^ "Collins Concise English Dictionary". Retrieved 21 Feb 2014.
  5. ^ Anderson, Roger Charles, Oared fighting ships: From classical times to the coming of steam. London. 1962. p. 37-39
  6. ^ Henry George Liddell & Robert Scott Galeos, A Greek-English Lexicon

مراجع

  • Alertz, U. (1991) Vom Schiffbauhandwerk zur Schiffbautechnik : die Entwicklung neuer Entwurfs- und Konstruktionsmethoden im italienischen Galeerenbau (1400-1700), Hamburg : Kovač, ISBN 3-925630-56-2
  • Humble, R. and Bergin, M. (1993) A 16th century galleon, Inside story series, Hemel Hempstead : Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0-7500-1339-7
  • Kirsch, P. (1990) The Galleon: the great ships of the Armada era, London : Conway Maritime, ISBN 0-85177-546-2
  • Rutland, J. (1988) A galleon, 2nd rev. ed., Connaty, M. (ed.), London : Kingfisher, ISBN 0-86272-327-2
  • Serrano Mangas, F. (1992) Función y evolución del galeón en la carrera de Indias, Colección Mar y América 9, Madrid : Editorial MAPFRE, ISBN 84-7100-285-X

وصلات خارجية

الكلمات الدالة: