افتح القائمة الرئيسية

لابؤرية

(تم التحويل من Astigmatism)

Astigmatism is a type of refractive error in which the eye does not focus light evenly on the retina.[1] This results in distorted or blurred vision at any distance.[1] Other symptoms can include eyestrain, headaches, and trouble driving at night.[1] If it occurs in early life, it can later result in amblyopia.[2]

Astigmatism
Astigmatism text blur.png
Blur from astigmatic lens at different distances
التخصصOphthalmology, optometry
الأعراضDistorted or blurred vision at all distances, eyestrain, headaches[1]
المضاعفاتAmblyopia[2]
المسبباتUnclear[3]
الطريقة التشخيصيةEye exam[1]
العلاجGlasses, contact lenses, surgery[1]
التردد30% to 60% of adults (Europe, Asia)[4]

The cause of astigmatism is unclear, however it is believed to be partly related to genetic factors.[3][4] The underlying mechanism involves an irregular curvature of the cornea or abnormalities in the lens of the eye.[1][3] Diagnosis is by an eye examination.[1]

Three treatment options are available: glasses, contact lenses, and surgery.[1] Glasses are the simplest.[1] Contact lenses can provide a wider field of vision.[1] Refractive surgery permanently changes the shape of the eye.[1]

In Europe and Asia, astigmatism affects between 30 and 60% of adults.[4] People of all ages can be affected by astigmatism.[1] Astigmatism was first reported by Thomas Young in 1801.[3][5]


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See also

References

  1. ^ أ ب ت ث ج ح خ د ذ ر ز س ش "Facts About Astigmatism". National Eye Institute. October 2010. Archived from the original on 2 October 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2019.CS1 maint: unfit url (link)
  2. ^ أ ب Harvey, EM (June 2009). "Development and treatment of astigmatism-related amblyopia". Optometry and Vision Science. 86 (6): 634–9. doi:10.1097/opx.0b013e3181a6165f. PMC 2706277. PMID 19430327.
  3. ^ أ ب ت ث Read, SA; Collins, MJ; Carney, LG (January 2007). "A review of astigmatism and its possible genesis". Clinical & Experimental Optometry. 90 (1): 5–19. doi:10.1111/j.1444-0938.2007.00112.x. PMID 17177660. S2CID 8876207.
  4. ^ أ ب ت Mozayan, E; Lee, JK (July 2014). "Update on astigmatism management". Current Opinion in Ophthalmology. 25 (4): 286–90. doi:10.1097/icu.0000000000000068. PMID 24837578. S2CID 40929023.
  5. ^ "Thomas Young | British physician and physicist". Encyclopædia Britannica (in الإنجليزية). Archived from the original on 29 August 2017. Retrieved 28 August 2017. More than one of |encyclopedia= and |encyclopedia= specified (help)

External links