قائمة الملوك الپولنديين

(تم التحويل من ملك پولندا)

Poland, or at least its nucleus, was ruled at various times either by dukes (the 10th–14th century) or by kings (the 11th-18th century). The longest-reigning dynasties were the Piasts (ca. 960–1370) and Jagiellonians (1386–1572). Intervening and subsequent monarchs were often rulers of foreign countries or princes recruited from foreign dynasties.

ملكية پولندا
Coat of Arms of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.svg
Stanislas August Poniatowski.PNG
Stanisław II August
التفاصيل
الأسلوبRoyal Majesty (HRM)[3]
Wasza Królewska Mość
Serene Reigning Majesty
Jaśnie Panujący Mości[4]
Grace (HG)
Wasza Miłość
Highness (HH)
Wasza Wysokość
أول عاهلMieszko I of Poland[1]
آخر عاهلStanisław II August
التشكيلحوالي 960
الإلغاء7 يناير 1795
المقرWawel Castle
Warsaw Castle
المعيـِّنHereditary
Elective[2]
المُطالبلا يوجد
Ruediger, Margrave of Meissen (disputed)
This list concerns the historical monarchs of Poland, from the Middle Ages to 1795. For presidents and other heads of state of Poland during the 20th and 21st centuries, see List of heads of state of Poland.

During the latter period, a tradition of free election of monarchs made it a uniquely electable position in Europe (16th–18th centuries). Polish independence ended with the Third Partition of Poland (1795) and was restored at the end of الحرب العالمية الأولى (1918) on a republican basis.

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Poland in the Early Middle Ages

See: Poland in the Early Middle Ages


الحكام الأسطوريون

الاسم
العمر
تولى الحكم
ترك الحكم
هوامش
العائلة
صورة
Lech
6th century 6th century 6th century Legendary founder of the Polish nation Lechites (Tribe)  
Krakus
  • Krak
8th century 8th century 8th century Legendary founder of Kraków Lechites (Tribe)  
Krakus II
  • Krak II
8th century 8th century 8th century Legendary son and successor of Krakus Lechites (Tribe)  
Lech II
8th century 8th century 8th century Legendary son of Krakus and successor of Krakus II Lechites (Tribe)  
Wanda
  • Wąda
8th century 8th century 8th century Legendary daughter of Krakus Lechites (Tribe)  

الحكام شبه الأسطوريين للپولان الغربيين (پولندا الكبرى)

الاسم
العمر
تولى الحكم
ترك الحكم
هوامش
العائلة
صورة
Leszko I
  • Leszek I
  • Duke
7th / 8th centuries 7th / 8th centuries 7th[5] / 8th centuries A semi-legendary ruler of the West Slavic ("proto-Polish") tribe of Goplans and Polans Goplans and Polans (Tribes)  
Leszko II
  • Leszek II
  • Duke
8th century 8th century 8th century A semi-legendary ruler of the West Slavic ("proto-Polish") tribe of Goplans and Polans Popielids  
Leszko III
  • Leszek III
  • Duke
8th century 8th century 8th century A semi-legendary ruler of the West Slavic ("proto-Polish") tribe of Goplans and Polans Popielids  
Popiel I
  • Duke
8th century 8th century 8th century A semi-legendary ruler of the West Slavic ("proto-Polish") tribe of Goplans and Polans Popielids  
Popiel II
  • Duke
9th century 9th century 9th century A semi-legendary ruler of the West Slavic ("proto-Polish") tribe of Goplans and Polans Popielids  

أسرة پياست (دوقات الپولان)

الاسم
العمر
تولى الحكم
ترك الحكم
هوامش
العائلة
صورة
Chościsko
9th century 9th century 9th century A legendary ruler of the Polans, father of Piast the Wheelwright Polans (Tribe)  
Piast the Wheelwright
9th century 9th century 9th century A legendary ruler of the Polans
Son of Chościsko, father of Siemowit
Founder of the Piast dynasty
Piast  
Siemowit
  • Ziemowit
  • Duke
9th century 9th century 9th century A semi-legendary ruler of the Polans, son of Piast the Wheelwright and Rzepicha Piast  
Lestek
  • Leszek, Lestko
  • Duke
9th / 10th centuries 9th / 10th centuries 9th / 10th centuries A semi-legendary ruler of the Polans, son of Siemowit Piast  
Siemomysł
  • Ziemomysł
  • Duke
10th century 10th century 10th century A semi-legendary ruler of the Polans, son of Lestek Piast  


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مملكة پولندا 960–1569

Piast Dynasty (Dukes and Kings of Poland)

الاسم
العمر
تولى الحكم
ترك الحكم
هوامش
العائلة
صورة
Mieszko I of Poland
  • Duke
ca. 940 – 25 May 992 ca. 960 992 Son of Siemomysł
First Christian monarch
Misico, dux Wandalorum
Piast  
Bolesław I the Brave
967 – 17 June 1025 Duke: 992
King: 18 April 1025
Duke: 18 April 1025
King: 17 June 1025
Son of Mieszko I and Dobrawa of Bohemia
First to be crowned King
Regnum Sclavorum, Gothorum sive Polonorum
Piast  
Mieszko II Lambert
ca. 990 – 10/11 May 1034 1025 1031 Son of Bolesław I and Emnilda of Lusatia Piast  
Bezprym
  • Duke
ca. 986–1032 1031 1032 Son of Bolesław I and Judith of Hungary (disputed) Piast  
Otto Bolesławowic
  • Duke
1000–1033 1032 1032 Son of Bolesław I and Emnilda Piast  
Theodorick
  • Dytryk
  • Duke
after 992 – after 1032 1032 1032 /1033 Grandson of Mieszko I and Oda of Haldensleben Piast  
Mieszko II Lambert
  • Duke
ca. 990 – 10/11 May 1034 1032 1034 Restored Piast  
Bolesław the Forgotten
before 1016 – 1038 or 1039 1034 1038 /1039 Semi-legendary, existence disputed Piast  
Casimir I the Restorer
(1016-06-25)25 يونيو 1016 – 28 نوفمبر 1058(1058-11-28) (عن عمر 42 عاماً) 1039 1058 Son of Mieszko II and Richeza of Lotharingia Piast  
Bolesław II the Bold
ca. 1041 or 1042 – 2 or 3 April 1081 or 1082 Duke: 1058
King: 1076
Duke: 1076
King: 1079
Son of Kazimierz I and Maria Dobroniega of Kiev Piast  
Władysław I Herman
  • Duke
ca. 1044 – 4 June 1102 1079 1102 Son of Kazimierz I and Maria Dobroniega Piast  
Zbigniew
  • Zbygniew
  • Duke
ca. 1073 – 8 July 1113 1102 1107 Son of Władysław I and Przecława of Prawdzic coat of arms (disputed)
First jointly with Władysław I 1098-1102
Piast  
Bolesław III Wrymouth
(1086-08-20)20 أغسطس 1086 – 28 أكتوبر 1138(1138-10-28) (عن عمر 52 عاماً) 1107 1138 Son of Władysław I and Judith of Bohemia
First jointly with Władysław 1098-1102
Introduced senioral principle
Piast  

تشظي مملكة پولندا 1138–1314

See also: Fragmentation of the realm and Testament of Bolesław III Wrymouth


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أسرة پياست (الدوقات الأعالي لپولندا)

الاسم
العمر
تولى الحكم
ترك الحكم
هوامش
العائلة
صورة
Władysław II the Exile
1105 – 30 May 1159 1138 1146 Son of Bolesław III and Zbyslava of Kiev
Also Duke of Silesia
Exiled by his brothers
Piast  
Bolesław IV the Curly
ca. 1125 – 5 January 1173 1146 1173 Son of Bolesław III and Salomea of Berg
Also Duke of Masovia
Piast  
Mieszko III the Old
ca. 1127 – 13 March 1202 1173 1177 Son of Bolesław III and Salomea
Also Duke of Greater Poland
Piast  
Casimir II the Just
ca. 1138 – 5 May 1194 1177 1190 Son of Bolesław III and Salomea
Also Duke of Wiślica and Sandomierz
Piast  
Mieszko III the Old
ca. 1127 – 13 March 1202 1190 1190 Restored Piast  
Casimir II the Just
ca. 1138 – 5 May 1194 1190 1194 Restored Piast  
Leszek I the White
ca. 1186 – 24 November 1227 1194 1198 Son of Casimir II and Helen of Znojmo
Also Duke of Sandomierz
Piast  
Mieszko III the Old
ca. 1127 – 13 March 1202 1198 1199 Restored Piast  
Leszek I the White
ca. 1186 – 24 November 1227 1199 1199 Restored Piast  
Mieszko III the Old
ca. 1127 – 13 March 1202 1199 1202 Restored Piast  
Władysław III Spindleshanks
ca. 1161/66 – 3 November 1231 1202 1202 Son of Mieszko III and Eudoxia of Kiev
Also Duke of Greater Poland
Piast  
Leszek I the White
ca. 1186 – 24 November 1227 1202 1210 Restored Piast  
Mieszko IV Tanglefoot
ca. 1130 – 16 May 1211 1210 1211 Son of Władysław II and Agnes of Babenberg
Also Duke of Silesia
Piast  
Leszek I the White
ca. 1186 – 24 November 1227 1211 1225 Restored Piast  
Henryk I the Bearded
ca. 1165 – 19 March 1238 1225 1225 Grandson of Władysław II, son of Bolesław I the Tall and Krystyna
Also Duke of Silesia
Piast  
Leszek I the White
ca. 1186 – 24 November 1227 1225 1227 Restored
Assassinated
Piast  
Władysław III Spindleshanks
ca. 1161/66 – 3 November 1231 1227 1229 Restored Piast  
Konrad I of Masovia
ca. 1187/88 – 31 August 1247 1229 1232 Son of Kazimierz II and Helen of Znojmo
Also Duke of Masovia
Piast  
Henryk I the Bearded
ca. 1165 – 19 March 1238 1232 1238 Restored Piast  
Henryk II the Pious
ca. 1196 – 9 April 1241 1238 1241 Son of Henry I and Saint Hedwig of Andechs (Saint Hedwig of Silesia)
Slso Duke of Wroclaw and Greater Poland
Fell at Battle of Legnica
Piast  
Bolesław II Rogatka
  • Bolesław II the Horned
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1220–1225 1241 1241 Son of Henry II and Anne of Bohemia
Also Duke of Silesia
Piast  
Konrad I of Masovia
ca. 1187/88 – 31 August 1247 1241 1243 Restored Piast  
Bolesław V the Chaste
21 June 1226 – 7 December 1279 1243 1279 Son of Leszek the White and Grzymislawa of Luck Piast  
Leszek II the Black
ca. 1241 – 30 September 1288 1279 1288 Paternal grandson of Konrad I of Masovia
Maternal grandson of Henry II
Son of Casimir I of Kuyavia and Constance of Wrocław
Piast  
Bolesław II of Masovia
  • Boleslaw II of Płock
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1251 – 20 April 1313 1288 1288 Grandson of Konrad I of Masovia
Duke of Masovia
Piast  
Henryk IV Probus
ca. 1257/58 – 23 June 1290 1288 1289 Paternal grandson of Henryk II
Maternal grandson of Konrad I
Son of Henry III the White and Judyta of Masovia
Duke of Lower Silesia
Piast  
Bolesław II of Masovia
  • Boleslaw II of Płock
  • High Duke
    Supreme Prince
ca. 1251 – 20 April 1313 1289 1289 Restored Piast  
Władysław I the Elbow-high
1261 – 2 March 1333 1289 1289 Grandson of Konrad I of Masovia
Son of Kazimierz I of Kujawia and Euphrosyne of Opole
Piast  
Henryk IV Probus
ca. 1257/58 – 23 June 1290 1289 1290 Restored Piast  

محاولات اعادة توحيد مملكة پولندا 1232–1305

أسرة پياست (ملوك پولندا)
الاسم
العمر
تولى الحكم
ترك الحكم
هوامش
العائلة
صورة
Przemysł II
  • Premyslas, Premislaus
  • King
(1257-10-14)14 أكتوبر 1257 – 8 فبراير 1296(1296-02-08) (عن عمر 38 عاماً) High Duke: 1290
King: 1295
High Duke: 1291
King: 1296
Grandson of Henryk II
Son of Przemysł I and Elisabeth of Wrocław
Also Duke of Poznań, Greater Poland and Pomerania
Piast  
Přemyslid Dynasty (Kings of Poland)
الاسم
العمر
تولى الحكم
ترك الحكم
هوامش
العائلة
صورة
Wenceslaus II of Bohemia
(1271-09-27)27 سبتمبر 1271 – 21 يونيو 1305(1305-06-21) (عن عمر 33 عاماً) High Duke: 1291
King: 1300
High Duke: 1300
King: 1305
Son of Ottokar II of Bohemia and Kunigunda of Slavonia
Married Premyslas II's daughter Elisabeth Richeza of Poland
Also King of Bohemia
Přemyslid  
Wenceslaus III of Bohemia
(1289-10-06)6 أكتوبر 1289 – 4 أغسطس 1306(1306-08-04) (عن عمر 16 عاماً) 1305 1306 Son of Wenceslaus II and Judith of Habsburg
Uncrowned
Assassinated
Přemyslid  

مملكة پولندا المعاد توحيدها 1314–1569

أسرة پياست (ملوك پولندا)

الاسم
العمر
تولى الحكم
ترك الحكم
هوامش
العائلة
صورة
Władysław I the Elbow-high
1261 – 2 March 1333 1320 1333 Restored
Re-united the Kingdom of Poland
Piast  
Casimir III the Great
(1310-04-30)30 أبريل 1310 – 5 نوفمبر 1370(1370-11-05) (عن عمر 60 عاماً) 1333 1370 Son of Władysław I the Elbow-high and Jadwiga of Kalisz
Regarded as one of the greatest Polish monarchs
Piast  

أسرة أنجو (ملوك پولندا)

الاسم
العمر
تولى الحكم
ترك الحكم
هوامش
العائلة
صورة
Louis I of Hungary
(1326-03-05)5 مارس 1326 – 10 سبتمبر 1382(1382-09-10) (عن عمر 56 عاماً) 1370 1382 Son of Charles I of Hungary and Elisabeth of Poland
Nephew of Kazimierz III
Elected King and crowned on 17 November
Also King of Hungary
Anjou  
Jadwiga of Poland
1373/4 – 17 July 1399 16 October 1384 17 July 1399 Daughter of Louis I and Elisabeth of Bosnia
Crowned "King", 1384
Reigned jointly with her husband
Władysław II Jagiełło from 1386
Anjou  

Jagiellonian Dynasty (Kings of Poland and Grand Dukes of Lithuania)

الاسم
العمر
تولى الحكم
ترك الحكم
هوامش
العائلة
صورة
Władysław II Jagiełło
ca. 1351/1362 – 1 يونيو 1434(1434-06-01) 4 March 1386 1 June 1434 Son of Algirdas of Lithuania and Uliana of Tver
Grand Duke of Lithuania, 1377-1434
Reigned jointly with his wife Jadwiga till 1399
The longest-reigning King of Poland
Jagiellonian  
Władysław III of Poland
  • Władysław III of Varna, Władysław Warneńczyk
  • King
(1424-10-31)31 أكتوبر 1424 - 10 نوفمبر 1444(1444-11-10) (عن عمر 20 عاماً) 25 July 1434 10 November 1444 Son of Władysław II Jagiełło and Sophia of Halshany
Also king of Hungary, as Ulászló I
Fell at Battle of Varna, in Bulgaria, hence called "of Varna"
Jagiellonian  
Casimir IV Jagiellon
  • Kazimierz Jagiellończyk
  • King
(1427-11-30)30 نوفمبر 1427 - 7 يونيو 1492(1492-06-07) (عن عمر 64 عاماً) 25 June 1447 7 June 1492 Son of Władysław II and Sophia of Halshany
Also Grand Duke of Lithuania, 1440–92
Jagiellonian  
John I Albert
  • Jan Olbracht
  • King
(1459-12-27)27 ديسمبر 1459 - 17 يونيو 1501(1501-06-17) (عن عمر 41 عاماً) 23 September 1492 16 June 1501 Son of Casimir IV and Elisabeth of Austria Jagiellonian  
Alexander I Jagiellon
  • Aleksander Jagiellończyk
  • King
(1461-08-05)5 أغسطس 1461 - 19 أغسطس 1506(1506-08-19) (عن عمر 45 عاماً) 12 December 1501 19 August 1506 Son of Casimir IV and Elisabeth of Austria
Also Grand Duke of Lithuania 1492-1506
Jagiellonian  
Sigismund I the Old
  • Zygmunt Stary
  • King
(1467-01-01)1 يناير 1467 – 1 أبريل 1548(1548-04-01) (عن عمر 81 عاماً) 8 December 1506 1 April 1548 Son of Casimir IV and Elisabeth of Austria
Also Grand Duke of Lithuania
Forced Prussian Homage in 1525
Annexed Duchy of Masovia in 1526
Entered alliance with Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor
Jagiellonian  
Sigismund II Augustus
  • Zygmunt August
  • King
(1520-08-01)1 أغسطس 1520 – 7 يوليو 1572(1572-07-07) (عن عمر 51 عاماً) 1 April 1548 7 July 1572 Son of Sigismund I and Bona Sforza
Also Grand Duke of Lithuania
Replaced the personal union of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with a real union and an elective monarchy (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) in 1569
Jagiellonian  

جمهورية پولندا الأولى 1569–1795

ملوك پولندا المنتخبون (الكومنولث الپولندي-اللتواني)

انظر أيضاً: تاريخ الكومنولث الپولندي-اللتواني (1569–1648) و تاريخ الكومنولث الپولندي-اللتواني (1648–1764) و تاريخ الكومنولث الپولندي-اللتواني (1764–95)

الاسم
العمر
تولى الحكم
ترك الحكم
هوامش
العائلة
صورة
Henryk Walezy
  • Henry III of France
  • King
(1551-09-19)19 سبتمبر 1551 – 2 أغسطس 1589(1589-08-02) (عن عمر 37 عاماً) 21 February 1574 12 May 1575 Son of Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici
Abandoned the Polish throne three months after his coronation in order to become King of France
Valois  
Anna
  • Anna Jagiellonka
  • King[8]
(1523-10-18)18 أكتوبر 1523 – 9 سبتمبر 1596(1596-09-09) (عن عمر 72 عاماً) 15 December 1575 12 December 1586 Daughter of Sigismund I and Bona Sforza
Reigned together with her husband Stephen Báthory
Jagiellonian  
Stefan Batory
  • Stephen Báthory
  • King
(1533-09-27)27 سبتمبر 1533 – 12 ديسمبر 1586(1586-12-12) (عن عمر 53 عاماً) 15 December 1575 12 December 1586 Son of Stephen VIII Báthory and Catherine Telegdi
Prince of Transylvania
Reigned together with his wife Anna
Báthory  
Zygmunt III
  • Sigismund III Vasa
  • King
20 June 1566 – 30 أبريل 1632(1632-04-30) (عن عمر 65 عاماً) 18 September 1587 19 April 1632 Grandson of Sigismund I
Son of John III of Sweden and Catherine Jagellon
Also King of Sweden 1592-1599, titular King 1599–1632
Vasa  
Władysław IV
  • Władysław IV Vasa
  • King
9 June 1595 – 20 مايو 1648(1648-05-20) (عن عمر 52 عاماً) 8 November 1632 20 May 1648 Son of Sigismund III and Anne of Austria
Titular Tsar of Russia 1610–1634, titular King of Sweden 1632–1648
Vasa  
Jan II Kazimierz
  • John II Casimir Vasa
  • King
(1609-03-22)22 مارس 1609 – 16 ديسمبر 1672(1672-12-16) (عن عمر 63 عاماً) 20 November 1648 16 September 1668 Son of Sigismund III and Constance of Austria
Titular King of Sweden 1648-1660
Abdicated
Vasa  
Michał Korybut
  • Michael I
  • King
(1640-05-31)مايو 31, 1640 – نوفمبر 10, 1673(1673-11-10) (عن عمر 33 عاماً) 19 June 1669 10 November 1673 Son of a successful but controversial military commander, Jeremi Wiśniowiecki, and Gryzelda Konstancja Zamoyska Wiśniowiecki  
Jan III
  • Jan III Sobieski
  • King
(1629-08-17)17 أغسطس 1629 – 17 يونيو 1696(1696-06-17) (عن عمر 66 عاماً) 21 May 1674 17 June 1696 Son of Jakub Sobieski and Zofia Teofillia Daniłowicz
Most famous for his brilliant victory over the Turks at the Battle of Vienna in 1683
Sobieski  
August II Mocny
  • Augustus II the Strong
  • King
(1670-05-12)12 مايو 1670 – 1 فبراير 1733(1733-02-01) (عن عمر 62 عاماً) 15 September 1697 16 February 1704 (deposed)
24 September 1706 (abdicates)
Son of John George III and Anna Sophie of Denmark
Elector of Saxony as Frederick Augustus I, 1694–1733
Wettin  
Stanisław I
  • Stanisław I Leszczyński
  • King
(1677-10-20)20 أكتوبر 1677 – 23 فبراير 1766(1766-02-23) (عن عمر 88 عاماً) 4 October 1705 8 August 1709 Son of Rafał Leszczyński and Anna Jabłonowska
Yielded to Augustus II
Leszczyński  
August II Mocny
  • Augustus II the Strong
  • King
(1670-05-12)12 مايو 1670 – 1 فبراير 1733(1733-02-01) (عن عمر 62 عاماً) 8 August 1709 1 February 1733 Restored Wettin  
Stanisław I
  • Stanisław I Leszczyński
  • King
(1677-10-20)20 أكتوبر 1677 – 23 فبراير 1766(1766-02-23) (عن عمر 88 عاماً) 12 September 1733 30 June 1734
(deposed)
27 January 1736
(abdicates)
Restored
Defeated in War of the Polish Succession
Became Duke of Lorraine until his death
Leszczyński  
August III Sas
  • Augustus III of Poland
  • King
17 October 1696 – 5 أكتوبر 1763(1763-10-05) (عن عمر 66 عاماً) 17 January 1734
(in opposition)
30 June 1734
(effectively)
5 October 1763 Son of Augustus II and Christiane Eberhardine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth Wettin  
Stanisław II August
  • Stanisław August Poniatowski
  • King
(1732-01-17)17 يناير 1732 – 12 فبراير 1798(1798-02-12) (عن عمر 66 عاماً) 25 November 1764 7 January 1795 Son of Stanisław Poniatowski and Konstancja Czartoryska
Forced to abdicate when the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (the Polish Republic since May 3, 1791) ceased to exist
Poniatowski  

مطالبون بالعرش الپولندي

انتخابات ملكية غير معترف بها

انظر أيضاً

وصلات خارجية

ببليوگرافيا

  • Duczmal M., Jagiellonowie. Leksykon biograficzny, Kraków 1996.
  • Dybkowska A., Żaryn J., Żaryn M., Polskie dzieje. Od czasów najdawniejszych po współczesność, wyd. 2, Warszawa 1995. ISBN 83-01-11870-9
  • Gierowski J.A., Rzeczpospolita w dobie złotej wolności (1648–1763), Kraków 2001. ISBN 83-85719-56-3
  • Grodziski S., Polska w czasach przełomu (1764–1815), Kraków 2001. ISBN 83-85719-45-8
  • Grodziski S., Porównawcza historia ustrojów państwowych, Kraków 1998. ISBN 83-7052-840-6
  • Grzybowski S., Dzieje Polski i Litwy (1506–1648), Kraków 2000. ISBN 83-85719-48-2
  • Morby J.E., Dynastie świata. Przewodnik chronologiczny i genealogiczny, Kraków 1995, s. 261-263. ISBN 83-7006-263-6
  • Wyrozumski J., Dzieje Polski piastowskiej (VIII w.-1370), Kraków 1999. ISBN 83-85719-38-5
  • Zientara B., Henryk Brodaty i jego czasy, wyd. 2, Warszawa 1997.

الهامش

  1. ^ first Christian monarch
  2. ^ Since 1574
  3. ^ It was not allowed to use abbreviations and acronyms
  4. ^ In the 17th century and later Poland was usually known as the Most Serene Republic of Poland (Polish: Najjaśniejsza Rzeczpospolita Polska, Latin: Serenissima Res Publica Poloniae).
  5. ^ dated around 700 by Marcin Bielski
  6. ^ Uncrowned - also considered titular King of Poland
  7. ^ Jadwiga was crowned King of Poland — Hedvig Rex Poloniæ, not Hedvig Regina Poloniæ. Polish law had no provision for a female ruler (queen regnant), but did not specify that the King had to be a male. The masculine gender of her title was also meant to emphasize that she was monarch in her own right, not a queen consort.
  8. ^ Anna was crowned King of Poland