لناپي

لناپي Lenape ( /ləˈnɑːpi/)، هي قبيلة أمريكية أصلية وحكومة نطاق الأمم الأولى.[4] يطلق عليهم أيضاً هنود ديلاوير[7] حيث أن أراضيهم التاريخية كانت على إمتداد الأفق الجبلية المحيطة بمستجمع نهر ديلاوير، غرب لونگ آيلاند ووادي هدسن السفلي.[notes 1]

لناپي
Lenape Languages.png
لناپي‌هوكينگ، الأراضي اللناپي الأصلية.[1] Munsee speakers in the north,
Unami-speakers in the center, and Unalichtigo-speakers in the south[2][3]
إجمالي التعداد
Estimated 16,000[4]
المناطق ذات التجمعات المعتبرة
 الولايات المتحدة ( اوكلاهوما)11.195 (2010)[5]
 الولايات المتحدة ( ويسكنسن)1.565[6]
اللغات
الإنگليزية, المونسي، والأونامي[4]
الدين
المسيحية، الكنيسة الأمريكية الأصلية،
الديانة القبلية التقليدية
الجماعات العرقية ذات الصلة
شعوب ألگونكويان أخرى

نتيجة للاضطرابات والإرادة السياسية للسكان البيض في أعقاب الحرب الثورية الأمريكية والتطورات اللاحقة مثل المواقف المعبرة التي أطلق عليها لاحقاً بيان القدر، والتي أدت جزئياً إلى ترحيل الهنود من شرق الولايات المتحدة، الجماعات الرئيسية التي تعيش حالياً في اونتاريو (كندا)، وسكنسنن واوكلاهوما.[8]

جني بوب وابنتها، نيلي لونگهيت (كلاهما من ديلاوير)، اوكلاهوما، 1915[9]

معظم اللناپي طُردوا من أراضيهم بسبب توسع المستعمرات الأوروپية في القرن 18 بعد الخسائر الناجمة عن الصراعات القبلية.[7] أصيبت تجمعات اللناپي بالضعف بعد الأمراض الدخيلة حديثاً، وخاصة السل، والعنف من قبل الأوروپيين. كان شعب الإروكويس يتقاتل أحياناً مع اللناپي. انتقل الناجون من اللناپي إلى الغرب داخل حوض نهر اوهايو العلوي. الحرب الثورية الأمريكية واستقلال الولايات المتحدة دفعهم إلى الاتجاه غرباً. في ستينيات القرن التاسع عشر، أرسلت الحكومة الأمريكية معظم من تبقى من اللناپي إلى الولايات المتحدة الشرقية حتى الأراضي الأمريكية بموجب سياسة ترحيل الهنود. في القرن 21، يقيم معظم اللناپي حالياً في ولاية اوكلاهوما، وتوجد بعض التجمعات أيضاً في وسكنسن، اونتاريو (كندا) وفي أراضيهم التقليدية.

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الاسم

الأراضي

اللغات

المجتمع

 
Susie Elkhair (d. 1926) of the Delaware Tribe of Indians, wearing ribbonwork shawl


التاريخ

التواصل الأوروپي

الفترة الاستعمارية المبكرة

القرن 17

 
Benjamin West's painting (in 1771) of William Penn's 1682 treaty with the Lenape


القرن 18

 
Lapowinsa, Chief of the Lenape, Lappawinsoe painted by Gustavus Hesselius in 1735.


النزوح



القرن 19

إنديانا إلى ميزوري

دورهم في التاريخ الغربي

محمية كنساس

اوكلاهوما

تكساس

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القرن 20

القرن 21

القبائل والمنظمات المعاصرة

الجماعات المنظمة فدرالياً

الأمم الكندية الأولى

الولايات المتحدة الشرقية

الولايات المتحدة الوسطى

الأدب والثقافة الشعبية

مشاهير اللناپي

انظر أيضاً

وثائقيات

  1. ^ Description of the Lenape peoples (Delaware nations) historic territories inside the divides of the frequently mountainous landforms flanking the Delaware River's drainage basin. These terrains encompass from South to North and then counter-clockwise:
    • the shores from the east-shore mouth of the river and the sea coast to Western Long Island (all of both colonial New York City and New Jersey), and
    • portions of Western Connecticut up to the latitude of the Massachusetts corner of today's boundaries — making the eastern bounds of their influence, thence their region extended:
    • westerly past the region around Albany, NY to the Susquehanna River side of the Catskills, then
    • southerly through the eastern Poconos outside the rival Susquehannock lands past Eastern Pennsylvania then southerly past the site of Colonial Philadelphia past the west bank mouth of the Delaware and extending south from that point along a stretch of sea coast in northern colonial Delaware.

    The Susquehanna-Delaware watershed divides bound the frequently contested 'hunting grounds' between the rival Susquehannock peoples and the Lenape peoples, whilst the Catskills and Berkshires played a similar boundary role in the northern regions of their original colonial era range.

المصادر

الحواشي

  1. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة n10
  2. ^ Fariello, Leonardo A. "A Place Called Whippany", Whippanong Library, 2000 (retrieved 19 July 2011)
  3. ^ Kraft, The Lenape-Delaware Indian Heritage,[صفحة مطلوبة]
  4. ^ أ ب ت Pritzker 422
  5. ^ "Pocket Pictorial." Oklahoma Indian Affairs Commission. 2010: 13. Retrieved 10 June 2010.
  6. ^ "Stockbridge-Munsee Band of Mohican Indians", Wisconsin Tribes, official state website
  7. ^ أ ب خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة josephy
  8. ^ http://www.nj.gov/state/historical/pdf/lenape-guide.pdf
  9. ^ "Art on the Prairies: Delaware", All About the Shoes. Retrieved 19 July 2011.
  10. ^ S. H. Mitchell (1895)[صفحة مطلوبة]
  11. ^ Killbuck, Ohio History Central. July 1, 2005

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قراءات إضافية

  • Adams, Richard Calmit, The Delaware Indians, a brief history, Hope Farm Press (Saugerties, NY 1995) [originally published by Government Printing Office, (Washington, DC 1909)]
  • Bierhorst, John. The White Deer and Other Stories Told by the Lenape. New York: W. Morrow, 1995. ISBN 0-688-12900-5
  • Brown, James W. and Rita T. Kohn, eds. Long Journey Home ISBN 978-0-253-34968-2. Indiana University Press (2007).
  • Grumet, Robert Steven (2009). The Munsee Indians: a history. Civilization of the American Indian. 262. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-4062-9. OCLC 317361732.
  • Kraft, Herbert: The Lenape: Archaeology, History, and Ethnography. New Jersey Historical Society, 1987. ISBN 978-0-911020-14-4.
  • Kraft, Herbert. The Lenape or Delaware Indians: The Original People of New Jersey, Southeastern New York State, Eastern Pennsylvania, northern Delaware and parts of western Connecticut. Lenape Books, 1996. ISBN 978-0-935137-01-9.
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  • Otto, Paul, The Dutch-Munsee Encounter in America: The Struggle for Sovereignty in the Hudson Valley (New York: Berghahn Books, 2006). ISBN 1-57181-672-0
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  • Richter, Conrad, The Light In The Forest. New York: 1953.

وصلات خارجية