زيت السمسم

غمكين حسن
ساهم بشكل رئيسي في تحرير هذا المقال

زيت السمسم Sesame oil (ويعرف أيضا باسم gingelly oil أوtil oil) هو زيت نباتي صالح للأكل يستخدم من بذور السمسم. بجانب استخدامه كزيت طعام في جنوب الهند فإنه يستخدم كمعزز للنكهة في الصين، كوريا، وعلى نطاق أضيق في مطبخ جنوب شرق آسيا.

زيت بذور السمسم في سحاحة زجاجية شفافة
زيت السمسم، للسلاطة أو الطهي
القيمة الغذائية لكل 100 غ (3.5 أونصة)
الطاقة3,699 kجول (884 ك.سعرة)
0.00 g
100.00 g
مشبع14.200 g
أحادي عدم التشبع39.700 g
متعدد عدم التشبع41.700 g
0.00 g
الڤيتامينات
Vitamin C
(0%)
0.0 mg
ڤيتامين E
(9%)
1.40 mg
ڤيتامين ك
(13%)
13.6 μg
آثار فلزات
كالسيوم
(0%)
0 mg
حديد
(0%)
0.00 mg
الماغنسيوم
(0%)
0 mg
فوسفور
(0%)
0 mg
پوتاسيوم
(0%)
0 mg
صوديوم
(0%)
0 mg
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

ويستعمل أيضا في المستحضرات الجلدية والتجميلية. وهو عبارة عن زيت نباتي التي تعد من السوغات متوسطة القدرة الاختراقية للجلد. وبدأت تحل محل الزيوت النباتية الگليسيريدات الصنعية او النصف صنعية التي تعتبر اكثر امتصاصا من قبل الجلد.

ويستعمل زيت السمسم في صناعة الطلاءات والصابون ومستحضرات التجميل والعطور. حيث يتم استيراد اكثر من ٨٠٠٠طن من زيت السمسم الى الولايات المتحدة.‏‎

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

الخصائص

ان اهم خصائصه المميزة أنه ثابت ويحافظ على جودته ولا يزنخ في حين ان معظم الزيوت النباتية تزنخ بسهولة حيث تتأكسد بسهولة نظرا لوجود الروابط المضاعفة.


شروط الزيوت النباتية لتكون الاكثر احتمالا من قبل الجلد

الزيوت النباتية الأكثر احتمالا من قبل الجلد يجب ان تتصف بما يلي:

‏1- ذاتقرينة حموض ضعيفة

‏2- خالية منحمض دسم قصيرة السلسلة

3- خالية أو تحتوي على نسبة ضئيلة منحمض الغار.


التركيب

يتكون زيت السمسم من الأحماض الدهنية التالية:[1]

الحمض الدهني الاسم الحد الأدنى الحد الأقصى
النخليك Palmitic C16:0 7.0 % 12.0 %
الپلميتولئيك Palmitoleic C16:1 trace 0.5 %
الشمع Stearic C18:0 3.5 % 6.0 %
الزيتيك Oleic C18:1 35.0 % 50.0 %
زيت الكتان Linoleic C18:2 35.0 % 50.0 %
اللينولنيك Linolenic C18:3 أثر 1.0 %
الأيكوسنويك Eicosenoic C20:1 trace 1.0 %

التاريخ

 
حبوب سمسم بيضاء، معظمها مقشور.


التسمية

انظر أيضا تسمية السمسم


انتاج زيت السمسم

عملية الانتاج

 
انتاج زيت السمسم في سوق موران، سئونگ‌نام، مقاطعة گي‌ؤنگ‌گي، كوريا الجنوبية.

The extraction of sesame oil from the sesame seed is not a completely automated process. In the fairy tale “Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves” (in Sinhala අලි බබා සහ හොරැ හතලිහ) the sesame fruit serves as a symbol for wealth. When the fruit capsule opens, it releases a real treasure: the sesame seeds. However, a great deal of manual work is necessary before this point is reached. That is why sesame is hardly ever cultivated in Western industrialised agricultural areas.[2]

The sesame seeds are protected by a capsule, which does not burst open until the seeds are completely ripe. The ripening time tends to vary. For this reason, the farmers cut plants by hand and place them together in upright position to carry on ripening for a few days. The seeds are only shaken out onto a cloth after all the capsules have opened.

The discovery of an indehiscent (nonshattering) mutant by Langham in 1943 began the work towards development of a high yielding, shatter-resistant variety. Although researchers have made significant progress in sesame breeding, harvest losses due to shattering continue to limit domestic US production.[3]

سوق بذور السمسم

سوق زيت السمسم

في 2007، كان السمسم يـُستورَد إلى الولايات المتحدة بسعر 0.43 دولار/رطل. هذا السعر العالي نسبياً يعكس نقصاً عالمياً. Though the market for sesame seed is strong, domestic US production awaits the development of high-yielding nonshattering varieties. It is advisable to establish a market before planting. حيث يتم استيراد اكثر من ٨٠٠٠ طن من زيت السمسم الى الولايات المتحدة.‏‎

التنوع

There are many variations in the colour of sesame oil: cold-pressed sesame oil is pale yellow, while Indian sesame oil (gingelly or til oil) is golden, and Chinese and Korean sesame oils are commonly a dark brown colour. This dark colour and flavour are derived from roasted/toasted sesame seeds. Cold pressed sesame oil has a different flavour than the toasted oil, since it is produced directly from raw, rather than toasted seeds.

Sesame oil is traded in any of the forms described above: Cold-pressed sesame oil is available in Western health shops. زيت السمسم غير المحمص (وإن كان ليس بالضرورة معصور على البارد) يشيع استعماله للطهي في الشرق الأوسط ويسهل العثور عليه في أسواق الطعام الحلال. In East Asian countries, different kinds of hot-pressed sesame oil are preferred.[4]

الاستخدامات

الطهي

Despite sesame oil's high proportion (41%) of polyunsaturated (Omega-6 fatty acids), it is least prone, among cooking oils with high نقاط التدخين, to turn rancid when kept in the open.[5] This is due to the natural antioxidants present in the oil. [6]

Light sesame oil has a high smoke point and is suitable for deep-frying, while heavy (dark) sesame oil (from roasted sesame seeds) has a slightly lower smoke point and is unsuitable for deep-frying. Instead it can be used for the stir-frying of meats or vegetables, or for the making of an omelette. Most in Asia use Roasted Sesame Oil for seasoning, particularly in East Asian cuisine.

The Chinese use sesame oil in the preparation of meals for women during postpartum confinement.

Sesame oil is most popular in Asia, especially in Korea, China, and the South Indian states of Karnataka, coastal Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu, where its widespread use is similar to that of olive oil in the Mediterranean.

تدليل الجسم

Sesame oil is reputed to penetrate the skin easily, and is used in India for oil massage. In Maharashtra, Sesame oil (Teel Tel) is specially used for massaging the foot.[7]


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

علاج الشعر

Applying sesame oil to the hair is said to result in darker hair. It may be used for hair and scalp massage.[8] It is believed to reduce the heat of the body and thus helps in preventing hair loss.

الصناعات الغذائية

Sesame oil is used in the manufacture of pickles.[9] Refined sesame oil is used to make margarine in Western countries.

صناعة الأدوية

Sesame oil is used in the manufacture of Ayurvedic drugs.[9]

العبادة

Sesame or Til oil is used in brass or silver lamps kept in front of gods and goddess of Hindus. Sesame oil is used for performing puja in Hindu temples.[9]

الاستخدامات الصناعية

In industry, sesame oil may be used as

  • a solvent in injected drugs or intravenous drip solutions,
  • a cosmetics carrier oil,
  • coating stored grains to prevent weevil attacks. The oil also has synergy with some insecticides.[10]

Low grade oil is used locally in soaps, paints, lubricants, and illuminants.[11]

الطب البديل

الفيتامينات والأملاح المعدنية

Sesame oil is a source of vitamin E.[12] Vitamin E is an anti-oxidant and has been correlated with lowering cholesterol levels.[13] As with most plant based condiments, sesame oil contains magnesium, copper, calcium, iron, zinc, and vitamin B6. Copper provides relief for rheumatoid arthritis. Magnesium supports vascular and respiratory health. Calcium helps prevent colon cancer, osteoporosis, migraine, and PMS. Zinc promotes bone health.

Besides being rich in Vitamin E, there is insufficient research on the medicinal properties of sesame oil. However, the following claims have been made.

ضغط الدم

Sesame oil has a high percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids[14] (omega-6 fatty acids)—but it is unique in that it keeps at room temperature. This is because it contains two naturally-occurring preservatives, sesamol and sesamin. (Normally, only oils predominately composed of the omega-9 monounsaturated oil, like olive oil, keep at room temperature.)

It has been suggested that due to the presence of high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids in sesame oil, it may help to control blood pressure. It could be used in cooking in place of other edible oils and to help reduce high blood pressure and lower the amount of medication needed to control hypertension.[15]

The effect of the oil on blood pressure may be due to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and the compound sesamin, a lignan present in sesame oil. There is evidence suggesting that both compounds reduce blood pressure in hypertensive rats. Sesame lignans also inhibit the synthesis and absorption of cholesterol in these rats.

Oil pulling

Sesame oil is one of the few oils recommended for use in oil pulling.[16] (Sunflower oil is the other oil recommended.)

الضغط والتوتر

Various constituends present in the sesame oil have anti-oxidant and anti-depressant properties. Therefore proponents encourage its use to help fight senile changes and bring about a sense of well-being.[17]

Adherents for its therapeutic use reports claims of feeling better than when not using it.

ادعاءات عامة

While not approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, sesame oil is reputed to have a number of therapeutic uses.

As with cure-all claims of other folk and therapeutic medicines, it is suggested that regular topical application and/or consumption of sesame oil should mitigate effects[18] of anxiety, nerve and bone disorders, poor circulation, lowered immunity and bowel problems. It is suggested such use would also relieve lethargy, fatigue, and insomnia, while promoting strength and vitality, enhancing blood circulation. There are claims that its use has relaxing properties which eases pain and muscle spasm, such as sciatica, dysmenorrhoea, colic, backache, and joint pain.

Sesame oil when used in infant massage, it is claimed, helps to calm babies and lull them to sleep and improves growth of the brain and the nervous system.[19] These are claims similar to other therapeutic medicines, that its having antioxidants explains beliefs that it slows the aging process and promotes longevity.

It is suggested that sesame oil, when consumed and/or topically applied, should relieve dryness both externally and internally. Sesame oil is sometimes recommended to alleviate the dryness associated with menopause.[20] It is believed that its use "restores moisture to the skin, keeping it soft, flexible and young looking". It is suggested that it relieves "dryness of joints" and bowels, and eases symptoms of dryness such as irritating coughs, cracking joints, and hard stools. Since "dryness of joints" is not a medically classifiable condition, it would be difficult to medically comprehend or verify these claims of panacea.

Other uses include as a laxative, as a remedy for toothaches and gum disease[21] and in the treatment of blurred vision, dizziness, and headaches.[10]

It is suggested that sesame oil could be used in the treatment of dry nose, reduction of cholesterol levels (due to presence of lignans which are phytoestrogens), anti-bacterial effects, and even slowing down certain types of cancer (due to the anti-oxidant properties of the lignans).[22]

الآثار الضارة

Sesame oil is not known to be harmful when taken in recommended dosages, though the long-term effects of taking sesame-derived remedies (in any amount) have not been investigated. Due to lack of sufficient medical study, sesame oil should be used with caution in children, women who are pregnant or breast-feeding, and people with liver or kidney disease.

Because of its laxative effects, sesame oil should not be used by people who have diarrhea.

No more than 10% of a person's total caloric intake should be derived from polyunsaturated fats such as those found in sesame oil, according to the American Heart Association.[23]

Oil massage should be avoided immediately after administering enemas, emetics or purgatives, during the first stages of fever or if suffering from indigestion.[18]

People who are allergic to peanuts are likely to be more susceptible to sesame allergy.[بحاجة لمصدر] Allergy to peanuts is one of the most common allergies, and can lead to anaphylactic shock which can be fatal. Persons allergic to sesame seeds should be cautious about using sesame oil.


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

انظر أيضا

‏*مستحضر جلدي


المصادر

  1. ^ "Fatty acids found in sesame oil". Essential oils. Retrieved 2006-10-07.
  2. ^ Graig Farm Organics - What We Offer > Our Range > The Grocery > Organic Cold-pressed Oils
  3. ^ Sesame
  4. ^ Spice Pages: Sesame Seeds (Sesamum indicum)
  5. ^ http://www.diabetesselfmanagement.com/articles/Nutrition_Meal_Planning/Cooking_Oils/Print
  6. ^ Growing Sesame: Production tips, economics, and more
  7. ^ Bliss at your Fingertips by Vasu Nargundkar
  8. ^ Hair and Scalp Massage by Shreelata Suresh
  9. ^ أ ب ت Traditional uses of Sesame Oil
  10. ^ أ ب "Food, Industrial, Nutraceutical, and Pharmaceutical Uses of Sesame Genetic Resources". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  11. ^ "Sesame Products and uses in Nigeria" (PDF). Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  12. ^ Cooking Oils That Are Good For You, From Sesame To Grapeseed What You Need To Know - CBS News
  13. ^ Correlations between Cholesterol, Vitamin E, and Vitamin K1 in Serum: Paradoxical Relationships to Established Epidemiological Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease
  14. ^ Kimchi Healthy
  15. ^ Sesame oil helps reduce dose of blood pressure-lowering medicine
  16. ^ The Daily Routine by Vasant Lad, MASc
  17. ^ Hair Loss Cure For Baldness Remedy Treatment Brahmi Oil Herbs
  18. ^ أ ب The Therapeutic Value of Sesame Oil
  19. ^ Benefits of Baby Massage
  20. ^ Sesame oil | Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine | Find Articles at BNET.com
  21. ^ Idhayam
  22. ^ Youthing Strategies Medical References
  23. ^ Sesame oil | Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine | Find Articles at BNET.com
  • الصيدلانيات(٣).منشورات جامعة دمشق