قائمة سلاطين الدولة العثمانية

(تم التحويل من السلطان العثماني)

العثمانيون، آل عثمان، الأتراك: سلالة تركية حكمت في الأناضول والبلقان وفي أراض واسعة أخرى، ما بين سنوات 1280-1922.

سلطان الدولة العثمانية
Imperial
Osmanli-nisani.svg
Sultans of the Ottoman Dynasty.jpg
السلاطين العثمانيون من عثمان الأول إلى محمد الخامس
التفاصيل
الأسلوبصاحب الجلالة السلطانية[a]
أول عاهلعثمان الأول
آخر عاهلمحمد السادس
التشكيل1299
الإلغاء1922
المقرقصور في إسطنبول:
المعيـِّنوراثية

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قائمة السلاطين

 
الراية السلطانية العثمانية


السلطان المخلوع (خط غامق) → هو السلطان الذي لم تنته فترة حكمه بالموت الطبيعي

# السلطان صورة بداية الحكم نهاية الحكم الطغراء ملاحظات
1 عثمان الأول   c. 1299 c. 1324
[c]
2 اورخان   c. 1324 c. 1360  
3 مراد الأول
Hüdavendigar
  c. 1360 1389  
4 بايزيد الأول
الصاعقة
  1389 1402  
Ottoman Interregnum[d]
(1402–1413)
5 محمد الأول   1413 1421  
6 مراد الثاني   1421 1444  
7 محمد الثاني
the Conqueror
  1444 1446  
  • ابن مراد الثاني وHüma Hatun;[8]
  • Surrendered the throne to his father after having asked him to return to power.[7]
مراد الثاني   1446 3 فبراير 1451  
  • Second reign;
  • Forced to return to the throne following a Janissary revolt;[9]
  • Reigned until his death.[6]
محمد الثاني
the Conqueror
  3 فبراير 1451 3 مايو 1481  
8 بايزيد الثاني   19 مايو 1481 25 ابريل 1512  
9 سليم الأول
the Grim
  25 ابريل 1512 21 سبتمبر 1520  
10 سليمان الأول
القانوني or the Lawgiver
  30 سبتمبر 1520 6 أو 7 سبتمبر 1566  
11 سليم الثاني
the Sot
  29 September 1566 21 December 1574  
12 مراد الثالث   22 ديسمبر 1574 16 يناير 1595  
13 محمد الثالث   27 يناير 1595 20 أو 21 ديسمبر 1603  
14 أحمد الأول   21 ديسمبر 1603 22 نوفمبر 1617  
15 مصطفى الأول   22 نوفمبر 1617 26 فبراير 1618  
16 عثمان الثاني   26 فبراير 1618 19 مايو 1622  
  • Son of Ahmed I and Mahfiruz Sultan;
  • حكم حتى وفاته;
  • Assassinated by the Janissaries.[18]
مصطفى الأول   20 مايو 1622 10 سبتمبر 1623  
  • Second reign;
  • عاد الى العرش بعد اغتيال ابن اخيه;
  • Deposed and confined until his death in Istanbul on 20 January 1639.[17]
17 مراد الرابع   10 سبتمبر 1623 8 أو 9 فبراير 1640  
18 ابراهيم   9 فبراير 1640 8 اغسطس 1648  
19 محمد الرابع   8 اغسطس 1648 8 نوفمبر 1687  
20 سليمان الثاني   8 نوفمبر 1687 22 يونيو 1691  
21 أحمد الثاني   22 يونيو 1691 6 فبراير 1695  
22 مصطفى الثاني   6 فبراير 1695 22 اغسطس 1703  
23 أحمد الثالث   22 اغسطس 1703 1 أو 2 اكتوبر 1730  
24 محمود الأول   2 اكتوبر 1730 13 ديسمبر 1754  
25 عثمان الثالث   13 December 1754 29 أو 30 اكتوبر 1757  
26 مصطفى الثالث   30 اكتوبر 1757 21 يناير 1774  
27 عبد الحميد   21 يناير 1774 6 أو 7 ابريل 1789  
28 سليم الثالث   7 ابريل 1789 29 مايو 1807  
  • Son of Mustafa III and Mihrişah Sultan;
  • Deposed in a Janissary revolt due to his reforms;
  • Assassinated in Istanbul on 28 July 1808.[30]
29 مصطفى الرابع   29 مايو 1807 28 يوليو 1808  
30 محمود الثاني   28 يوليو 1808 1 يوليو 1839  
31 عبد المجيد الأول   1 يوليو 1839 25 يونيو 1861  
32 عبد العزيز   25 يونيو 1861 30 مايو 1876  
  • Son of Mahmud II and Sultana Pertevniyal;
  • خلع على يد وزراؤه;
  • Found dead (suicide or murder) five days later.[34]
33 مراد الخامس   30 مايو 1876 31 اغسطس 1876  
34 عبد الحميد الثاني
  31 اغسطس 1876 27 ابريل 1909  
35 محمد الخامس   27 ابريل 1909 3 يوليو 1918  
36 محمد السادس   4 يوليو 1918 1 نوفمبر 1922  
حل الدولة العثمانية[e]
(1922–1923)
عبد المجيد الثاني
(خليفة فقط)
  18 نوفمبر 1922 3 مارس 1924
[c]


انظر أيضا

الهوامش

a1 2 : The full style of the Ottoman ruler was complex, as it was composed of several titles and evolved over the centuries. The title of sultan was used continuously by all rulers almost from the beginning. However, because it was widespread in the Muslim world, the Ottomans quickly adopted variations of it to dissociate themselves from other Muslim rulers of lesser status. Murad I, the third Ottoman monarch, styled himself sultan-i azam (the most exalted sultan) and hüdavendigar (emperor), titles used by the Anatolian Seljuqs and the Mongol Ilkhanids respectively. His son Bayezid I adopted the style Sultan of Rûm, Rûm being an old islamic name for Anatolia. The combining of the Islamic and Central Asian heritages of the Ottomans led to the adoption of the title that became the standard designation of the Ottoman ruler: Sultan [Name] Khan.[42] Ironically, although the title of sultan is most often associated in the Western world with the Ottomans, people within Turkey generally use the title of padishah far more frequently when referring to rulers of the Ottoman Dynasty.[43] The full style of the Ottoman sultan once the empire's frontiers had stabilized became:[44]

"Sovereign of The Osman Family, Sultan es Selatin (Sultan of Sultans), Khakhan (Khan of the Khans), Caliph of the Faithful, Servant of the Cities of Mecca, Medina and Kouds (Jerusalem), Padishah of The Three Cities of Istanbul (Constantinople), Edirne (Adrianople) and Bursa, and of the Cities of Châm (Damascus) and Misr (Egypt), of all Azerbaijan, of Mägris, of Barkah, of Kairouan, of Alep, of Iraq, of Arabia and of Ajim, of Basra, of El Hasa, of Dilen, of Raka, of Mosul, of Parthia, of Diyarbakir, of Cilicia, of the Vilayets of Erzurum, of Sivas, of Adana, of Karaman, of Van, of Barbaria, of Habech (Abyssinia), of Tunisia, of Tyrabolos (Tripoli), of Châm (Syria), of Kybris (Cyprus), of Rhodes, of Candia (Crete), of the Vilayet of Morea (Peloponnese), of Ak Deniz (Mediterranean Sea), of Kara Deniz (Black Sea), of Anatolia, of Rumelia (the European part of the Empire), of Bagdad, of Kurdistan, of Greece, of Turkestan, of Tartary, of Circassia, of the two regions of Kabarda, of Gorjestan (Georgia), of the plain of Kypshak, of the whole country of the Tartars, of Kefa (Feodosiya) and of all the neighbouring countries, of Bosnia and dependancies, of the City of Belgrade, of the Vilayet of Serf (Serbia), with all the castles and cities, of all the Arnaut Vilayet (Albania), of all Iflak (Wallachia) and Bogdania (Moldavia), as well as all the dependancies and borders, and many others countries and cities"

b^ : The Ottoman Caliphate was one of the most important positions held by rulers of the Ottoman Dynasty. The caliphate symbolized their spiritual power, whereas the sultanate represented their temporal power. According to Ottoman historiography, Selim I acquired the title of caliph during his conquest of Egypt in 1517, after the last Abbasid in Cairo, Al-Mutawakkil III, relinquished the caliphate to him. However, the general consensus among modern scholars is that this transference of the caliphate was a fabricated myth invented in the 18th century when the idea of an Ottoman Caliphate became useful to bolster waning military power. In fact, Ottoman rulers had used the title of caliph before the conquest of Egypt, as early as Murad I. It is currently agreed that the caliphate "disappeared" for two-and-a-half centuries, before being revived with the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, signed between the Ottoman Empire and Catherine II of Russia in 1774. The treaty was highly symbolic, since it marked the first international recognition of the Ottomans' claim to the caliphate. Although the treaty officialised the Ottoman Empire's loss of the Crimean Khanate, it acknowledged the Ottoman caliph's continuing religious authority over Muslims in Russia.[45] From the 18th century onwards, Ottoman sultans increasingly emphasized their status as caliphs in order to stir Pan-Islamist sentiments among the empire's Muslims in the face of encroaching European imperialism. When الحرب العالمية الأولى broke out, the sultan/caliph issued a call for jihad in 1914 against the Ottoman Empire's Allied enemies, vainly inciting the subjects of the French, British and Russian empires to revolt. Abdülhamid II was by far the Ottoman sultan who made the most use of his caliphal position, and was recognized as caliph by many Muslim heads of state, even as far away as Sumatra.[46] He had his claim to the title inserted into the 1876 Constitution (Article 4).[47]
c1 2 : Tughras were used by 35 out of 36 Ottoman sultans, starting with Orhan in the 14th century, whose tughra has been found on two different documents. No tughra bearing the name of Osman I, the founder of the empire, has ever been discovered, although a coin with the inscription "Osman bin Ertuğrul bin Gündüz Alp" has been identified.[48] Abdülmecid II, the last Ottoman caliph, also lacked a tughra of his own, since he did not serve as head of state (that position being held by Mustafa Kemal, President of the newly founded Republic of Turkey) but as a mere religious figurehead.
d^ : The Ottoman Interregnum, also known as the Ottoman Triumvirate (تركية: Fetret Devri), was a period of chaos in the Ottoman Empire which lasted from 1402 to 1413. It started following the defeat and capture of Bayezid I by the Turco-Mongol warlord Tamerlane at the Battle of Ankara, which was fought on 20 July 1402. Bayezid's sons fought each other for over a decade, until Mehmed I emerged as the undisputed victor in 1413.[49]
e^ : The dissolution of the Ottoman Empire was a gradual process which started with the abolition of the sultanate and ended with that of the caliphate 16 months later. The sultanate was formally abolished on 1 November 1922. Sultan Mehmed VI fled to Malta on 17 November aboard the British warship Malaya.[38] This event marked the end of the Ottoman Dynasty, not of the Ottoman State nor of the Ottoman Caliphate. On 18 November, the Grand National Assembly (TBMM) elected Mehmed VI's cousin Abdülmecid II, the then crown prince, as caliph.[50] The official end of the Ottoman State was declared through the Treaty of Lausanne (24 July 1923), which recognized the new "Ankara government," and not the old Istanbul-based Ottoman government, as representing the rightful owner and successor state. The Republic of Turkey was proclaimed by the TBMM on 29 October 1923, with Mustafa Kemal as its first President.[51] Although Abdülmecid II was a figurehead lacking any political power, he remained in his position of caliph until the office of the caliphate was abolished by the TBMM on 3 March 1924.[47] Mehmed VI later tried unsuccessfully to reinstall himself as caliph in the Hejaz.[52]

المصادر

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  4. ^ "Sultan Yıldırım Beyezid Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06.
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  9. ^ Kafadar 1996, p. xix
  10. ^ "Sultan II. Bayezid Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06.
  11. ^ "Yavuz Sultan Selim Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06.
  12. ^ "Kanuni Sultan Süleyman Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06.
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  30. ^ "Sultan III. Selim Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06.
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  39. ^ As̜iroğlu 1992, p. 13
  40. ^ As̜iroğlu 1992, p. 17
  41. ^ As̜iroğlu 1992, p. 14
  42. ^ Peirce 1993, pp. 158–159
  43. ^ M'Gregor, J. (1854). "The Race, Religions, and Government of the Ottoman Empire". The Eclectic Magazine of Foreign Literature, Science, and Art. New York: Leavitt, Trow, & Co. 32: p. 376. OCLC 6298914. Retrieved 2009-04-25. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)CS1 maint: extra text (link)
  44. ^ Ozgen, Korkut. "The Ottomans History". TheOttomans.org. Archived from the original on 2008-01-11. Retrieved 2009-02-06.
  45. ^ Glassé, Cyril, ed. (2003). "Ottomans". The New Encyclopedia of Islam. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press. pp. 349–351. ISBN 9780759101906. OCLC 52611080. Retrieved 2009-05-02. More than one of |encyclopedia= and |encyclopedia= specified (help)
  46. ^ Quataert 2005, pp. 83–85
  47. ^ أ ب Toprak 1981, pp. 44–45
  48. ^ Mensiz, Ercan. "About Tugra". Tugra.org. Archived from the original on 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2009-02-06.
  49. ^ Sugar 1993, pp. 23–27
  50. ^ As̜iroğlu 1992, p. 54
  51. ^ Glazer 1996, "Table A. Chronology of Major Kemalist Reforms"
  52. ^ Steffen, Dirk (2005). "Mehmed VI, Sultan". In Tucker, Spencer (ed.). World War I: Encyclopedia. Volume III: M–R. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. p. 779. ISBN 9781851094202. OCLC 162287003. Retrieved 2009-05-02. More than one of |encyclopedia= and |encyclopedia= specified (help)

بيليوگرافيا


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وصلات خارجية

منصب مستحدث حكام الدولة العثمانية
1299–1922
{{{reason}}}
ألقاب إسلامية سنية
سبقه
الخلافة العباسية
(في القاهرة)
حاملو الخلافة
1517–1924
شاغر
اللقب حمله بعد ذلك
الحسين بن علي، شريف مكة