اللغات الأسترو-آسيوية

(تم التحويل من Austro-Asiatic languages)

اللغات الأستروآسيوية (Austroasiatic؛ /ˌɔːstr.ʒiˈætɪk/،[note 1] وتُعرف أيضاً بإسم مون–خمير /ˌmnkəˈmɛər/,[2] are a large language family of Mainland Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China, with around 117 million speakers.[3] The name Austroasiatic comes from a combination of the Latin words for "South" and "Asia", hence "South Asia". Of these languages, only Vietnamese, Khmer, and Mon have a long-established recorded history, and only Vietnamese and Khmer have official status as modern national languages (in Vietnam and Cambodia, respectively). In Myanmar, the Wa language is the de facto official language of Wa State. Santali is recognized as a regional language of India. The rest of the languages are spoken by minority groups and have no official status.

Austroasiatic
Mon–Khmer
التوزيع
الجغرافي:
South and Southeast Asia
التبويب اللغوي:One of the world's primary language families
اللغة الأولية:Proto-Austroasiatic
الأقسام:
ISO 639-5:aav
Glottolog:aust1305[1]
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Austroasiatic languages

Ethnologue identifies 168 Austroasiatic languages. These form thirteen established families (plus perhaps Shompen, which is poorly attested, as a fourteenth), which have traditionally been grouped into two, as Mon–Khmer and Munda. However, one recent classification posits three groups (Munda, Nuclear Mon-Khmer and Khasi–Khmuic)[4] while another has abandoned Mon–Khmer as a taxon altogether, making it synonymous with the larger family.[5]

Austroasiatic languages have a disjunct distribution across India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Southeast Asia, separated by regions where other languages are spoken. They appear to be the extant autochthonous languages of Southeast Asia (if Andaman islands are not included), with the neighboring Indo-Aryan, Kra–Dai, Hmong-Mien, Dravidian, Austronesian, and Sino-Tibetan languages being the result of later migrations.[6]


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اللغة الأولية

Much work has been done on the reconstruction of Proto-Mon–Khmer in Harry L. Shorto's Mon–Khmer Comparative Dictionary. Little work has been done on the Munda languages, which are not well documented. With their demotion from a primary branch, Proto-Mon–Khmer becomes synonymous with Proto-Austroasiatic.

Paul Sidwell (2005) reconstructs the consonant inventory of Proto-Mon–Khmer as follows:

*p *t *c *k
*b *d
*m *n
*w *l, *r *j
*s *h


التبويب الداخلي

ديفلوث (1974)

Diffloth's widely cited original classification, now abandoned by Diffloth himself, is used in Encyclopædia Britannica and—except for the breakup of Southern Mon–Khmer—in Ethnologue.

پيروس (2004)

Peiros is a lexicostatistic classification, based on percentages of shared vocabulary. This means that languages can appear to be more distantly related than they actually are due to language contact. Indeed, when Sidwell (2009) replicated Peiros's study with languages known well enough to account for loans, he did not find the internal (branching) structure below.

ديفلوث (2005)

Diffloth compares reconstructions of various clades, and attempts to classify them based on shared innovations, though like other classifications the evidence has not been published. As a schematic, we have:

Austro ‑ Asiatic 

 Munda 

Remo

Savara

KhariaJuang

Korku

Kherwarian

 Khasi – Khmuic 

Khmuic

Pakanic

Palaungic

Khasian

 (Nuclear)  Mon–Khmer 

Vietic

?[7]

Katuic

Bahnaric

Khmer

Pearic

Nicobarese

Aslian

Monic

أو بتفصيل أكثر،

  • Koraput: 7 languages
  • Core Munda languages
  • Kharian–Juang: 2 languages
  • North Munda languages
Korku
Kherwarian: 12 languages
  • Khasian: 3 languages of north eastern India and adjacent region of Bangladesh
  • Palaungo-Khmuic languages
  • Khmuic: 13 languages of Laos and Thailand
  • Palaungo-Pakanic languages
Pakanic or Palyu: 4 or 5 languages of southern China and Vietnam
Palaungic: 21 languages of Burma, southern China, and Thailand
  • Nuclear Mon–Khmer languages
  • Khmero-Vietic languages (Eastern Mon–Khmer)
  • Vieto-Katuic languages ?[7]
Vietic: 10 languages of Vietnam and Laos, including the Vietnamese language, which has the most speakers of any Austroasiatic language.
Katuic: 19 languages of Laos, Vietnam, and Thailand.
  • Khmero-Bahnaric languages
  • Bahnaric: 40 languages of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia.
  • Khmeric languages
The Khmer dialects of Cambodia, Thailand, and Vietnam.
Pearic: 6 languages of Cambodia.
  • Nico-Monic languages (Southern Mon–Khmer)
  • Asli-Monic languages
Aslian: 19 languages of peninsular Malaysia and Thailand.
Monic: 2 languages, the Mon language of Burma and the Nyahkur language of Thailand.


Sidwell (2009, 2011)

 
Paul Sidwell and Roger Blench propose that the Austroasiatic phylum had dispersed via the Mekong River drainage basin.


Austroasiatic: Mon–Khmer

Munda

 Khasi–Palaungic 

Khasian

Palaungic

Khmuic

Mangic

Vietic

Katuic

Bahnaric

Khmer

Pearic

Monic

Aslian

Nicobarese

?Shompen


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نظم الكتابة

Other than Latin-based alphabets, many Austroasiatic languages are written with the Khmer, Thai, Lao, and Burmese alphabets. Vietnamese divergently had an indigenous script based on Chinese logographic writing. This has since been supplanted by the Latin alphabet in the 20th century. The following are examples of past-used alphabets or current alphabets of Austroasiatic languages.

Austroasiatic migrations

According to Chaubey et al., "Austro-Asiatic speakers in India today are derived from dispersal from Southeast Asia, followed by extensive sex-specific admixture with local Indian populations."[13] According to Riccio et al., the Munda people are likely descended from Austroasiatic migrants from southeast Asia.[14][15]

According to Zhang et al., Austroasiatic migrations from southeast Asia into India took place after the last Glacial maximum, circa 10,000 years ago.[16] Arunkumar et al. suggest Austroasiatic migrations from southeast Asia occurred into northeast India 5.2 ± 0.6 kya and into East India 4.3 ± 0.2 kya.[17]

انظر أيضاً

ملاحظات

  1. ^ Sometimes also as Austro-Asiatic أو Austroasian

المراجع

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Austroasiatic". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Bradley (2012) notes, MK in the wider sense including the Munda languages of eastern South Asia is also known as Austroasiatic.
  3. ^ "Austroasiatic". www.languagesgulper.com (in الإنجليزية). Retrieved 15 October 2017.
  4. ^ Diffloth 2005
  5. ^ Sidwell 2009
  6. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير صحيح؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة SidwellBlench2011
  7. ^ أ ب Sidwell (2005) casts doubt on Diffloth's Vieto-Katuic hypothesis, saying that the evidence is ambiguous, and that it is not clear where Katuic belongs in the family.
  8. ^ "Vietnamese Chu Nom script". Omniglot.com. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
  9. ^ "Khmer/Cambodian alphabet, pronunciation and language". Omniglot.com. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
  10. ^ "Santali alphabet, pronunciation and language". Omniglot.com. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
  11. ^ "Sorang Sompeng script". Omniglot.com. 18 June 1936. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
  12. ^ Everson, Michael (19 April 2012). "N4259: Final proposal for encoding the Warang Citi script in the SMP of the UCS" (PDF). Retrieved 20 August 2016.
  13. ^ Chaubey et al. 2010, p. 1013.
  14. ^ Riccio, M. E.; et al. (2011). "The Austroasiatic Munda population from India and Its enigmatic origin: a HLA diversity study". Human Biology. 83 (3): 405–435. doi:10.3378/027.083.0306. PMID 21740156.
  15. ^ The Language Gulper, Austroasiatic Languages
  16. ^ Zhang 2015.
  17. ^ Arunkumar, G.; et al. (2015). "A late Neolithic expansion of Y chromosomal haplogroup O2a1-M95 from east to west". Journal of Systematics and Evolution. 53 (6): 546–560. doi:10.1111/jse.12147.

المصادر

Further reading


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وصلات خارجية

قالب:Austroasiatic languages