هلموت فون مولتكه الأصغر

Helmuth Johannes Ludwig Graf[1] von Moltke (ألمانية: [ˈhɛlmuːt fɔn ˈmɔltkə]; 25 May 1848 – 18 June 1916), also known as Moltke the Younger, was a German general and Chief of the Great German General Staff. He was also the nephew of Generalfeldmarschall (Field Marshal) Helmuth Karl Bernhard von Moltke who is commonly called "Moltke the Elder" to differentiate the two.

Helmuth von Moltke the Younger
Generalleutnant von Moltke, der neue Chef des Generalstabs, 1906 (cropped).jpg
Moltke in 1906
Chief of the German General Staff
في المنصب
1 يناير 1906 – 14 سبتمبر 1914
المستشار
سبقه Alfred von Schlieffen
العاهل ڤلهلم الثاني
خلفه إريش فون فالكن‌هاين
تفاصيل شخصية
وُلِد (1848-05-25)25 مايو 1848
Biendorf, Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, German Confederation
توفي 18 يونيو 1916(1916-06-18) (عن عمر 68 عاماً)
برلين, Province of Brandenburg, مملكة پروسيا، الامبراطورية الألمانية
المدفن Invalidenfriedhof
الخدمة العسكرية
الكنية Moltke the Younger
(Moltke der Jüngere)
الولاء قالب:Country data North German Confederation
 الإمبراطورية الألمانية
الخدمة/الفرع  بروسيا
 الجيش الألماني الإمبراطوري|الإمبراطورية الألمانية
سنوات الخدمة 1868–1916
الرتبة Generaloberst
قاد 1st Guards Infantry Brigade
1st Guards Infantry Division
Chief of the General Staff
المعارك/الحروب Franco-Prussian War
الحرب العالمية الأولى
الأوسمة Pour le Mérite
Order of the Red Eagle
House Order of the Wendish Crown
Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order

Upon becoming the head of the General Staff, Moltke led the German Army from 1 January 1906 to 14 September 1914 during the opening months of World War I. His legacy remains a matter of controversy due to his involvement in Germany’s decision to go to war and the failure of the Schlieffen Plan.

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Early career

Helmuth von Moltke was born in Biendorf, Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, and was named after his uncle, Helmuth Karl Bernhard von Moltke, future Generalfeldmarschall (Field Marshal) and hero of the Unification of Germany. During the Franco-Prussian War, Moltke served with the 7th Grenadier Regiment and was cited for bravery. He attended the War Academy between 1875 and 1878 and joined the General Staff in 1880. In 1882 he became personal adjutant to his uncle, who was then Chief of the General Staff. In 1891, on the death of his uncle, Moltke became aide-de-camp to Kaiser Wilhem II, thus becoming part of the Emperor's inner circle. In 1898 he became commander of the 1st Guards Infantry Brigade and in 1902, being promoted to Lieutenant General, received command of the 1st Guards Infantry Division.[2]:47–49


الصعود لرئاسة الأركان

في 1904 Moltke was made Quartermaster-General; in effect, Deputy Chief of the General Staff. In 1906, he became chief on the retirement of Alfred von Schlieffen. His appointment was controversial then and remains so today. The other likely candidates for the position were Hans Hartwig von Beseler, Karl von Bülow and Colmar Freiherr von der Goltz.[2]:68 Critics charge that Moltke gained the position on the strength of his name and his friendship with the Kaiser, whom he was certainly far closer to than the other candidates. Historians argue that Beseler was too close to Schlieffen to have succeeded him, while Bülow and Goltz were too independent for Wilhelm to have accepted them. Moltke's friendship with the Kaiser permitted him a latitude that others could not have enjoyed. Goltz, at least, saw nothing wrong with Moltke's performance as Chief.[2]:71

هزيمة المارن

 
مولتكه يحلل معركة المارن.


وفاته

 
قبر الجنرال فون مولتكه وزوجته في مقبرة الإنڤليد، في برلين.

الفظائع الألمانية

 
تماماً كعمه، يرى الفرنسيون مولتكه أنه مسئول عن الفظائع التي ارتكبها جنود الجيش الألماني.



الهامش

  1. ^ قالب:German title
  2. ^ أ ب ت Mombauer, Annika (2001). Helmuth von Moltke and the Origins of the First World War. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-79101-4.

Further reading

وصلات خارجية

  اقرأ اقتباسات ذات علاقة بهلموت فون مولتكه الأصغر، في معرفة الاقتباس.
مناصب عسكرية
سبقه
Count Schlieffen
Chief of the General Staff
1906–1914
تبعه
إريش فون فالكن‌هاين
سبقه
Karl von Bülow
Quartermaster-General of the German Army
16 February 1904 – 31 December 1905
تبعه
Fritz von Below