سياسة إرتريا takes place in a framework of a single-party presidential republican totalitarian dictatorship, whereby the Eritrean President is both head of state and head of government and a single-party state, led by the People's Front for Democracy and Justice. The popularly elected National Assembly of 150 seats, formed in 1993 shortly after independence, elected the current president, أسياس أفورقي. There have been no general elections since its official rise to power in 1993. They are governed under the constitution of 1993.[مطلوب توضيح] A new constitution was ratified in 1997, but has not been implemented.[1]

Following a successful referendum on independence for the Autonomous Region of Eritrea between 23 and 25 April 1993, on 19 May of that year the Provisional Government of Eritrea (PGE) issued a Proclamation regarding the reorganization of the Government. It declared that during a four-year transition period, and sooner if possible, it would draft and ratify a constitution, prepare a law on political parties, prepare a press law, and carry out elections for a constitutional government. In March 1994, the PGE created a constitutional commission charged with drafting a constitution flexible enough to meet the current needs of a population suffering from 30 years of civil war as well as those of the future, when stability and prosperity change the political landscape.


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السلطة التنفيذية

شاغلو المناصب الرئيسية
المكتب الاسم الحزب منذ
الرئيس أسياس أفورقي PFDJ 24 مايو 1993
وزير الخارجية عثمان صالح PFDJ 24 مايو 1993
المتحدث الرسمي بإسم الحزب الحاكم يماني قبري آب
Yemane Gebreab
PFDJ 24 مايو 1993
وزير الخارجية أبرها كاسا PFDJ 24 مايو 1993
يماني قبري مسكل PFDJ
أمين حسن PFDJ

أسياس أفورقي سيتراجع نفوذه الشخصي وسط مجموعته فقط وهم بارعون في إدارة نزاعاتهم الداخلية بقسوة وصرامة. إذا نجحت المجموعة المناوئة له فستبقيه رئيساً بصلاحيات أقل.

أتوقع أن يجري هو تعديلاً يستبق به الأحداث ويخرج فيه عدد من الرجال المهمين من كابينة القيادة (عثمان صالح وزير الخارجية/ يماني قبري آب/ أبرها كاسا) وصعود تلاميذه (يماني قبري مسكل وأمين حسن).


The President nominates individuals to head the various ministries, authorities, commissions, and offices, and the National Assembly ratifies those nominations. The cabinet is the country's executive branch. It is composed of 18 ministries and chaired by the president. It implements policies, regulations, and laws and is, in theory, accountable to the National Assembly.

The Ministries are:


السلطة التشريعية

قالب:Eritrea composition The legislature, the National Assembly appointed in 1993, includes 75 members of the People's Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ) and 75 additional 'popularly elected' members.


جماعات المعارضة الإرترية في المنفى

التقسيمات الادارية

Eritrea is divided into 6 regions (or zobas) and subdivided into approximately 55 districts or sub-zobas. The regions are based on the hydrological properties of area. This has the dual effect of providing each administration with ample control over its agricultural capacity and eliminating historical intra-regional conflicts.

المناطق مفصلة هنا، ويليها the Sub-region:

المنطقة (ዞባ) (الموقع على الخريطة) Sub-region (ንዑስ ዞባ)
Central (Maekel Zoba) (الوسط) (1) Berikh, Ghala Nefhi, North Eastern, Serejaka, South Eastern, South Western
Southern (Debub Zoba) (الجنوبي) (2) Adi Keyh, Adi Quala, Areza, Debarwa, Dekemhare, Kudo Be'ur, Mai-Mne, Mendefera, Segeneiti, Senafe, Tserona
قاش بركة (3) مدينة أگوردات، بارنتو City, Dghe, Forto, Gogne, Haykota, Logo Anseba (Awraja Adi Naamen), Mensura, Mogolo, Molki, Omhajer (Guluj), Shambuko, Tesseney, Upper Gash
Anseba (4) Adi Teklezan, Asmat, Elabered, Geleb, Hagaz, Halhal, Habero, مدينة كرن، Kerkebet, Sela
شمال البحر الأحمر (Semienawi-QeyH-Bahri Zoba) (شمال البحر الأحمر) (5) Afabet, دهلك، Ghelalo, Foro, Ghinda, Karura, مصوع, Nakfa, She'eb
جنوب البحر الأحمر (Debubawi-QeyH-Bahri Zoba) (جنوب البحر الأحمر) (6) Are'eta, Central Dankalia, Southern Dankalia

العلاقات الخارجية

External issues include an undemarcated border with the Sudan, a الحرب الوجيزة مع اليمن على جزر حنيش in 1996, and a recent border conflict with Ethiopia.

The undemarcated border with Sudan poses a problem for Eritrean external relations.[3] After a high-level delegation to the Sudan from the Eritrean Ministry of Foreign Affairs ties are being normalized. While normalization of ties continues, Eritrea has been recognized as a broker for peace between the separate factions of the Sudanese civil war, with Hassan al-Turabi crediting Eritrea in playing a role in the peace agreement between the Southern Sudanese and the government.[4] Additionally, the Sudanese Government and Eastern Front rebels requested that Eritrea mediate their peace talks in 2006.[5]

A dispute with Yemen over the Hanish Islands in 1996 resulted in a brief war. As part of an agreement to cease hostilities the two nations agreed to refer the issue to the Permanent Court of Arbitration at the Hague. At the conclusion of the proceedings, both nations acquiesced to the decision. Since 1996 both governments have remained wary of one another but relations are relatively normal.[6]

The undemarcated border with Ethiopia is the primary external issue facing Eritrea. This led to a long and bloody border war between 1998 and 2000. As a result, the United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) is occupying a 25 km by 900 km area on the border to help stabilize the region.[7] Disagreements following the war have resulted in stalemate punctuated by periods of elevated tension and renewed threats of war.[8][9][10] Central to the continuation of the stalemate is Ethiopia's failure to abide by the border delimitation ruling and reneging on its commitment to demarcation. The stalemate has led the President of Eritrea to write his Eleven Letters to the United Nations Security Council, which urges the UN to take action on Ethiopia. Relations between the two countries is further strained by the continued effort of the Eritrean and Ethiopian leaders in supporting each other's opposition.

الهامش

  1. ^ Jennifer Widner (August 2005). "Eritrea 1997". Princeton University. Retrieved July 1, 2013.
  2. ^ http://www.worldbulletin.net/news/132089/prominent-eritrean-opposition-leader-dies
  3. ^ "Eritrea-Sudan relations plummet". BBC. 2004-01-15. Retrieved 2006-06-07.
  4. ^ "Turabi terms USA "world's ignoramuses", fears Sudan's partition". Sudan Tribune. 2005-11-04. Archived from the original on 2006-07-18. Retrieved 2006-06-07.
  5. ^ "Sudan demands Eritrean mediation with eastern Sudan rebels". Sudan Tribune. 2006-04-18. Archived from the original on 2006-05-19. Retrieved 2006-06-07.
  6. ^ "Flights back on between Yemen and Eritrea". BBC. 1998-12-13. Retrieved 2006-06-07.
  7. ^ "Q&A: Horn's bitter border war". BBC. 2005-12-07. Retrieved 2006-06-07.
  8. ^ "Horn tensions trigger UN warning". BBC. 2004-02-04. Retrieved 2006-06-07.
  9. ^ "Army build-up near Horn frontier". BBC. 2005-11-02. Retrieved 2006-06-07.
  10. ^ "Horn border tense before deadline". BBC. 2005-12-23. Retrieved 2006-06-07.

وصلات خارجية

الكلمات الدالة: