مدق اوريگون

(تم التحويل من ممر أوريجون)

مدق اوريگون Oregon Trail أطول ممر بين الطرق البرية الكبرى التي استُخدمت في التوسع غرب الولايات المتحدة.كان يخترق مسافة 3,200كم من النجود والصحاري، ويعبر الجبال، من إندبندانس بولاية ميسوري، إلى المحيط الهادئ باتجاه الشمال الغربي. ويستطيع المسافرون حتى اليوم أن يشاهدوا الطريق المحفور بعمق، وقد قطعته عجلات العربات على طول مقاطع الممر.

The Oregon Trail
Wpdms nasa topo oregon trail.jpg
The route of the Oregon Trail shown on a map of the western United States from Independence, Missouri (on the eastern end) to Oregon City, Oregon (on the western end)
Oregontrail 1907.jpg
Map from The Ox Team, or the Old Oregon Trail 1852–1906, by Ezra Meeker
الموقعIowa, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, Wyoming, Idaho, Oregon
تأسست1830s by mountain men of fur trade, widely publicized by 1843
الهيئة الحاكمةNational Park Service
الموقع الإلكترونيOregon National Historic Trail

اتخذ المستوطنون هذا الممر طريقًا لهم إلى أوريجون عام 1841م. كما استخدمت الممر أول مجموعة كبيرة، وتقدر بنحو ألف شخص، في الهجرة الكبرى التي تمت عام 1843م.

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تاريخ

 
Oregon Trail reenactment at Scotts Bluff


رحلة لويس وكلارك

الأستوريون

شركة الشمال الغربي وشركة خليج هدسون

الصحراء الأمريكية الكبرى

 
Trail Ruts near Guernsey, Wyoming
 
A bison bull on a Nebraska wildlife refuge.

تجار الفراء والفخاخون والمستكشفون

 
The exploration of the West by Jedediah Smith


 
خريطة حوض النهر الأخضر

الهجرة الكبرى في 1843

هجرة المورمون

الظعن إلى ذهب كاليفورنيا

 
Map of the route of the York Factory Express, 1820s to 1840s. Modern political boundaries shown.


الطرق

 
The 20th Century saw a host of Oregon Trail boosters celebrate the old trail as a patriotic pathway of Manifest Destiny. Oregon Trail pioneer Ezra Meeker erected this boulder near Pacific Springs on Wyoming's South Pass in 1906.[1]

الإحصائيات

المهاجرون

Estimated California Oregon Mormon Trail Emigrants[2]
Year Oregon California Utah Total
1834-39 20 - - 20
1840 13 - - 13
1841 24 34 - 58
1842 125 - - 125
1843 875 38 - 913
1844 1,475 53 - 1,528
1845 2,500 260 - 2,760
1846 1,200 1,500 - 2,700
1847 4,000 450 2,200 6,650
1848 1,300 400 2,400 4,100
Tot to '49 11,512 2,735 4,600 18,847
1849 450 25,000 1,500 26,950
1850 6,000 44,000 2,500 52,500
1851 3,600 1,100 1,500 6,200
1852 10,000 50,000 10,000 70,000
1853 7,500 20,000 8,000 35,500
1854 6,000 12,000 3,200 21,200
1855 500 1,500 4,700 6,700
1856 1,000 8,000 2,400 11,400
1857 1,500 4,000 1,300 6,800
1858 1,500 6,000 150 7,650
1859 2,000 17,000 1,400 20,400
1860 1,500 9,000 1,600 12,100
Total 53,000 200,300 43,000 296,300
1834-60 Oregon California Utah[3] Total[4]
1861 - - 3,148 5,000
1862 - - 5,244 5,000
1863 - - 4,760 10,000
1864 - - 2,626 10,000
1865 - - 690 20,000
1866 - - 3,299 25,000
1867 - - 700 25,000
1868 - - 4,285 25,000
Total 80,000 250,000 70,000 400,000
1834-67 Oregon California Utah Total


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بيانات التعداد الغربي

Census Population of western States[5]
الولاية 1870 1860 الفرق
كاليفورنيا 560,247 379,994 180,253
Nevada 42,491 6,857 35,634
Oregon 90,923 52,465 38,458
Colorado* 39,684 34,277 5,407
Idaho* 14,990 - 14,990
Montana* 20,595 - 20,595
Utah* 86,789 40,273 46,516
Washington* 23,955 11,594 12,361
Wyoming* 9,118 - 9,118
Totals 888,792 525,460 363,332
*مناطق


الوفيات

Oregon-California-Mormon Trail Deaths[6]
السبب تقدير الوفيات
Cholera1 6,000-12,500
Indian attacks2 500-1,000
Freezing3 300-500
Run overs4 200-500
Drownings5 200-500
Shootings6 200-500
Miscellaneous7 200-500
Scurvy8 300-500
Totals 8,000-16,500
انظر الملاحظات


انظر أيضاً

للاستزادة

المصادر

  1. ^ "Ventures and Adventures of Ezra Meeker: Or, Sixty Years of Frontier Life," by Ezra Meeker. Rainer Printing Company 1908. ASIN: B000861WA8
  2. ^ Unruh: page 119-120
  3. ^ Mormon Pioneer Companies [1] Accessed 11 April 2009
  4. ^ Mattes, Merril J.; "The Great Platte River Road"; p23; Nebraska State Historical Society; 1979: ISBN 978-0686262541
  5. ^ U.S. Census 1790-1870 [2]
  6. ^ Unruh: pp 408-410, 516

ملاحظات

^1 Cholera deaths includes deaths by other 'diseases' of the day like old age, small pox, typhoid, diphtheria, pneumonia, consumption (tuberculosis), measles, yellow fever, dysentery, whooping cough, scarlet fever, malaria, mumps etc. The trail people were already exposed to these diseases before they left and would have in all likelihood have caught them anyway and are not unique hazards of the trail. There was no effective treatment for many of these diseases then (the germ theory of disease was just gaining acceptance) and little that any Doctor of this era could do for those that got them except let them recover on their own or die.

^2 Indian attacks increased significantly after 1860 when most of the army troops were withdrawn and miners and ranchers began fanning out all over the country often encroaching on Indian territory. Increased attacks along the Humboldt lead to most travelers taking the Central Nevada Route across Nevada. The Goodall cutoff was developed in Idaho (est. 1862) which kept Oregon bound travelers away from much of the Indian trouble nearer the Snake River. Other trails were developed that traveled further along the South Platte to avoid local Indian hot spots.

^3 For examples of freezing deaths see: Donner Party and Willie and Martin handcart companies for three major disasters.

^4 Run overs were a major cause of death, despite the wagons only averaging 2–3 miles per hour. The wagons couldn't easily be stopped and people, particularly children, were often trying to get on and off the wagons while they were moving—not always successfully. Another hazard was walking alongside the wagon and your dress getting caught in the wheels and pulling you under it. The iron wheels on the wagons were not very forgiving.

^5 Drownings probably peaked in 1849 and 1850 when young impatient and pushy, men (who thought they knew it all and were immortal) were the predominant population on the trail. Later more family groups started traveling as well as many more ferries and bridges being put in—fording a dangerous river became much less common and dangerous. Surprisingly few people were taught to swim in this era.

^6 Accidental shootings declined significantly after Fort Laramie as people became more familiar with their weapons and often just left them in their wagons. Carrying around a ten pound rifle all day soon became tedious and usually unnecessary as the perceived Indian threat faded and hunting opportunities receded.

^7 Miscellaneous is a large catch all for unlisted deaths on the trail and may be too small—there were a lot of ways to die back then.

^8 Scurvy, as such, was not often listed as a cause of death; but reading the reason they died leads to the conclusion that scurvy was probably the major cause of death—particularly in the last month on the trail.

وصلات خارجية

قالب:TrailSystem قالب:Oregon Pioneer History

الكلمات الدالة: