شرائع صولون

(تم التحويل من دستور صولون)

أنتخب صولون Solon الحكيم والشاعر حاكما على أثينا في الفترة (594 - 572 ق.م.) وقد قام بعد توليه الحكم بوضع شرائع أو أحكام عرفت باسم "الدستور الصولوني" أو "شرائع صولون" وكان الهدف منها أن تكون دستور يحكم به البلاد وهو ما يلي باتخاذ:

تمثال نصفي لصولون في متاحف الڤاتيكان

1ـ بدأ بإعلان العفو العام لتصفية آثار الماضي.

2ـ سمح للمنفيين بالرجوع إلى وطنهم وأعاد إليهم الحقوق المدنية (عدا المحكومين بجرائم القتل).

3ـ ألغى جميع الديون , سواء كانت للأفراد أم للدولة , وأعاد الأملاك المرهونة إلى أصحابها , وحرر الأفراد الذين كانوا قد أصبحوا أقنانا مرتبطين بالأرض بسبب عجزهم عن دفع ديونهم . وأصدر قانونا يحرم استعباد أي شخص في المستقبل مقابل دين يعجز عن تسديده.

4ـ قام بإصلاحات اقتصادية وضريبية واسعة حيث قسم المجتمع إلي أربع طبقات حسب الدخل وفرض الضريبة وفق ذلك.

5ـ أوجد مجلس الأربعمائة الذي ينتخب من قبل القبائل الأربع في أثينا ( لكل قبيلة 100 ) ومهمة هذا المجلس هي تهيئة المشاريع التي يجب عرضها على مجلس الشيوخ.

6ـ قام بإحياء مجلس الشعب الذي يشترك جميع المواطنين في مناقشاته , وعهد إليه مهمة انتقاء الحكام حيث كانوا ينتخبون سابقا من قبل مجلس الشيوخ. وكان جميع الموظفين مسؤولين تجاه هذا المجلس الذي يستطيع معاقبة أي موظف , ويحق له أن يحاسب الحكام والقواد عند انتهاء مدة عملهم، وأن يحرمهم من أن يصبحوا أعضاء في مجلس الشيوخ.

7ـ أسس مجلس المحلفين الذي يتألف من ستة آلاف عضو , ينتقون بالقرعة من جميع الطبقات والذي ينقسم إلى محاكم متعددة تنظر في جميع القضايا عدا حوادث القتل . ويحق لهذا المجلس أن ينظر في كل اعتراض على أي عمل من أعمال الموظفين.

وقد نقشت شرائع صولون على لوحات مثلثة تدور على محور وتم وضعها في الرواق الملكي حيث كان يجلس الحاكم والملك للقضاء وأقسموا جميعاً بأن يتقيدوا بها.

وهكذا أصبحت إدارة الدولة منذ ذلك الوقت خاضعة لقوانين مكتوبة ثابتة , بعد أن كانت تسير حسب أوامر وقرارات ارتجالية.

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طبقات الشعب

Pentacosiomedimnoi

The pentacosiomedimni or pentakosiomedimnoi (باليونانية: πεντακοσιομέδιμνοι) were the top class of citizens: those whose property or estate could produce 500 medimnoi of wet or dry goods (or their equivalent), per year. They were eligible for all top positions of government in Athens. These were:

The pentacosiomedimnoi could also serve as generals (strategoi) in the Athenian army.

Hippeis

The hippeus was the second highest of the four social classes. It was composed of men who had at least 300 medimnoi or their equivalent as yearly income.

Zeugitae

The zeugitae (باليونانية: ζευγῖται) or zeugitai were those whose property or estate could produce 200 medimnoi of wet or dry goods (or their equivalent), per year.[بحاجة لمصدر] The term appears to have come from the Greek word for "yoke", which has led modern scholars to conclude that zeugitae were either men who could afford a yoke of oxen or men who were "yoked together" in the phalanx—that is, men who could afford their own hoplite armor.[1]

The zeugitae could serve as hoplites in the Athenian army. The idea was that one could serve as a hoplite if he had enough money to equip himself in that manner, i.e. he could produce 200 medimnoi or more per year.

At the time of Solon's reforms, zeugitae were granted the right to hold certain minor political offices.[2] Their status rose through the years; in 457/6 BC they were granted the right to hold the archonship,[3] and in the late 5th century moderate oligarchs advocated for the creation of an oligarchy in which all men of hoplite status or higher would be enfranchised, and such a regime was indeed established for a time during the Athenian coup of 411 BC.[4]

They were eligible for a few positions of government in Athens such as:

  • Council of 400
  • Lower offices of state
  • Ecclesia
  • In 457/6 BC, the archonship was opened to zeugitae

Thetes

The thetes (باليونانية: θῆτες, thêtes, sing. θής, thēs, "serf") were the lowest social class of citizens. The thetes were those who were workers for wages, or had less than 200 medimnoi (or their equivalent) as yearly income. This distinction spanned from some time earlier than 594/593 BC until 322 BC.[بحاجة لمصدر] The thetes were defined as citizens who did not qualify as zeugitae, although the thetes may have predated the Solonian reforms. They could participate in the Ecclesia (the Athenian assembly), and could be jurors serving in the law court of the Heliaia, but were not allowed to serve in the Boule or serve as magistrates.[بحاجة لمصدر]

In the reforms of Ephialtes and Pericles around 460 – 450 BC, the thetes were empowered to hold public office.[5]

12,000 thetes were disenfranchised and expelled from the city after the Athenian defeat in the Lamian War. There is debate among scholars whether this represented the entire number of thetes, or simply those who left Athens, the remainder staying behind.

Unlike the popular concept of galley slaves, ancient navies generally preferred to rely on free men to row their galleys. In the 4th and 5th century Athens generally followed a naval policy of enrolling citizens from the lower classes (the thetes), metics and hired foreigners.[6] However, under some conditions, for example during the Mytilenean revolt, higher classes were enrolled as rowers also. This made them crucial in the Athenian Navy and therefore gave them a role in Athens' affairs (see دستور الأثينيين).

تيموقراطية

By this measure he pleased neither party, but the rich were dissatisfied at the loss of their securities, and the poor were still more so because the land was not divided afresh, as they hoped it would be, and because he had not, like ليكورگوس، أسَس مساواة مطلقة.

—پلوتارخ — حياة صولون

[…] Solon, who wished to leave all magistracies as he found them, in the hands of the wealthy classes, but to give the people a share in the rest of the constitution, from which they were then excluded, took a census of the wealth of the citizens, and made a first class of those who had an annual income of not less than five hundred medimni of dry or liquid produce; these he called pentakosiomedimni. The next class were the Hippeis, or knights, consisting of those who were able to keep a horse, or who had an income of three hundred medimni. The third class were the Zeugitae, whose property qualification was two hundred medimni of dry or liquid produce; and the last class were the Thetes, whom Solon did not permit to be magistrates, but whose only political privilege was the right of attending the public assemblies and sitting as jurymen in the law courts. This privilege was at first insignificant, but afterwards became of infinite importance, because most disputes were settled before a jury. Even in those cases which he allowed the magistrates to settle, he provided a final appeal to the people.

—پلوتارخ — حياة صولون

Solon further instituted a timocracy,[7] and those who did not belong to the nobility received a share in the rights of citizens,[8] according to a scale determined by their property and their corresponding services to the Athenian State. For this purpose he divided the population into four classes,[9] founded on the possession of land:

  1. pentacosiomedimni (or pentacosiomedimnoi) – who had at least 500 medimni of produce as yearly income
  2. hippeis – knights, with at least 300 medimni
  3. zeugitae – possessors of a yoke of oxen, with at least 150 medimni
  4. thetes – workers for wages, with less than 150 medimni of yearly income

Solon's legislation only granted to the first three of these four classes a vote in the election of responsible officers, and only to the first class the power of election to the highest offices; as, for instance, that of archon. The first three classes were bound to serve as hoplites; the cavalry was raised out of the first two, while the fourth class was only employed as light-armed troops or on the fleet, and apparently for pay. The others served without pay. The holders of office in the State were also unpaid.

Each division had different rights; for example, the pentacosiomedimnoi could be archons, while thetes could only attend the Athenian assembly. The fourth class was excluded from all official positions, but possessed the right of voting in the general public assemblies (the Heliaia) which chose officials and passed laws. They had also the right of taking part in the trials by jury which Solon had instituted.

مجلس الأربعمائة

Solon established a constitutional order with a single chief consultative body, and a single administrative body. Solon established as the chief consultative body the Council of the Four Hundred,[10][11] in which only the first three classes took part, and as chief administrative body the Areopagus, which was to be filled up by those who had been archons.

انظر أيضاً

الهامش

  1. ^ Whitehead, "The Ancient Athenian ΖΕΥΓΙΤΑΙ", 282–83
  2. ^ Fine, The Ancient Greeks, 209
  3. ^ Renshaw, In Search of the Greeks, 147
  4. ^ Kagan, The Peloponnesian War, 398–399
  5. ^ Raaflaub, 2008, p. 140
  6. ^ Sargent 1927, pp. 266–268; Ruschenbusch 1979, pp. 106 & 110
  7. ^ τιμοκρατία
  8. ^ by which the exclusive rights which the nobles had till then possessed were set aside
  9. ^ Not unlike the four occupations of Ancient China.
  10. ^ see Bodle
  11. ^ According to Aristotle's Constitution of Athens, 4, a Council of 401 members was part of Dracon's constitution (about 621 B.C.). The members were selected by lot from the whole body of citizens. Solon (who was archon in 594) reduced the Council to 400, one hundred from each of the four tribes; and extended in some particulars the powers already possessed by the Areopagus (ib. 8).

المصادر


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